File Name: world war 2 causes and effects .zip
- World War II
- Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II
- Aftermath of World War II
- Second World War (1939-1945): Causes and Consequences
The first world war itself sowed the seeds for Second World War, primarily because of the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Alex Andrews George is a mentor, author, and entrepreneur. He is the author of many best-seller books like 'Important Judgments that transformed India' and 'Important Acts that transformed India'.
World War II
Allies during World War II , the US and the USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in the Cold War , so called because it never resulted in overt, declared total war between the two powers but was instead characterized by espionage , political subversion and proxy wars. Internationally, alliances with the two blocs gradually shifted, with some nations trying to stay out of the Cold War through the Non-Aligned Movement.
The War also saw a nuclear arms race between the two superpowers; part of the reason that the Cold War never became a "hot" war was that the Soviet Union and the United States had nuclear deterrents against each other, leading to a mutually assured destruction standoff.
As a consequence of the war, the Allies created the United Nations , an organization for international cooperation and diplomacy, similar to the League of Nations.
Members of the United Nations agreed to outlaw wars of aggression in an attempt to avoid a third world war. This effort primarily began as an attempt to avoid another war between Germany and France by economic cooperation and integration, and a common market for important natural resources.
The end of the war also increased the rate of decolonization from the great powers with independence being granted to India from the United Kingdom , Indonesia from the Netherlands , the Philippines from the US and a number of Arab nations , primarily from specific rights which had been granted to great powers from League of Nations Mandates in the post World War I-era but often having existed de facto well before this time.
Independence for the nations of Sub-Saharan Africa came more slowly. At the end of the war, millions of people were dead and millions more homeless, the European economy had collapsed, and much of the European industrial infrastructure had been destroyed. The Soviet Union , too, had been heavily affected. In response, in , U. By the end of the war, the economy of the United Kingdom was one of severe privation. More than a quarter of its national wealth had been consumed.
Lend-lease came just before its reserves were exhausted. In spring , the Labour Party withdrew from the wartime coalition government, in an effort to oust Winston Churchill , forcing a general election. Britain's war debt was described by some in the American administration as a "millstone round the neck of the British economy".
Although there were suggestions for an international conference to tackle the issue, in August the U. The abrupt withdrawal of American Lend-Lease support to Britain on 2 September dealt a severe blow to the plans of the new government. It was only with the completion of the Anglo-American loan by the United States to Great Britain on 15 July that some measure of economic stability was restored.
However, the loan was made primarily to support British overseas expenditure in the immediate post-war years and not to implement the Labour government's policies for domestic welfare reforms and the nationalisation of key industries. Although the loan was agreed on reasonable terms, its conditions included what proved to be damaging fiscal conditions for Sterling.
From to , the UK introduced bread rationing, which it had never done during the war. The Soviet Union suffered enormous losses in the war against Germany. Soviet ex- POWs and civilians repatriated from abroad were suspected of having been Nazi collaborators, and , of them were sent to forced labour camps after scrutiny by Soviet intelligence, NKVD. Others worked in labour battalions to rebuild infrastructure destroyed during the war. The economy had been devastated. Roughly a quarter of the Soviet Union's capital resources were destroyed, and industrial and agricultural output in fell far short of pre-war levels.
To help rebuild the country, the Soviet government obtained limited credits from Britain and Sweden; it refused assistance offered by the United States under the Marshall Plan. Germany and former Nazi satellites made reparations to the Soviet Union. The reconstruction programme emphasised heavy industry to the detriment of agriculture and consumer goods.
By , steel production was twice its level, but the production of many consumer goods and foodstuffs was lower than it had been in the late s. The immediate post-war period in Europe was dominated by the Soviet Union annexing , or converting into Soviet Socialist Republics ,    all the countries invaded and annexed by the Red Army driving the Germans out of central and eastern Europe.
The Allies established the Far Eastern Commission and Allied Council for Japan to administer their occupation of that country while the establishment Allied Control Council , administered occupied Germany. In accordance with the Potsdam Conference agreements, the Soviet Union occupied and subsequently annexed the strategic island of Sakhalin. In Germany, in the west, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France.
In the east, the Sudetenland reverted to Czechoslovakia following the European Advisory Commission 's decision to delimit German territory to be the territory it held on 31 December The remainder of Germany was partitioned into four zones of occupation, coordinated by the Allied Control Council. The Saar was detached and put in economic union with France in In , the Federal Republic of Germany was created out of the Western zones. The Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic.
Germany paid reparations to the United Kingdom, France, and the Soviet Union, mainly in the form of dismantled factories , forced labour , and coal. The German standard of living was to be reduced to its level.
In accordance with the Paris Peace Treaties, , reparations were also assessed from the countries of Italy , Romania , Hungary , Bulgaria , and Finland. US policy in post-war Germany from April until July had been that no help should be given to the Germans in rebuilding their nation, save for the minimum required to mitigate starvation. The Allies' immediate post-war "industrial disarmament" plan for Germany had been to destroy Germany's capability to wage war by complete or partial de-industrialization.
Dismantling of West German industry ended in By , equipment had been removed from manufacturing plants , and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6. Clay and George Marshall , the Truman administration accepted that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base on which it had previously been dependent.
From onwards West Germany also became a minor beneficiary of the Marshall Plan. Volunteer organisations had initially been forbidden to send food, but in early the Council of Relief Agencies Licensed to Operate in Germany was founded. However, after making approaches to the Allies in the autumn of it was allowed to investigate the camps in the UK and French occupation zones of Germany, as well as to provide relief to the prisoners held there. On 4 February , the Red Cross was also permitted to visit and assist prisoners in the U.
French women who had had romantic liaisons with German soldiers were publicly humiliated and had their heads shaved. There were also a wave of summary executions estimated to have killed about 10, people.
There were no international war crimes trials for French collaborators, who were tried in the domestic courts. Approximately , cases were investigated; , people were given various sentences including 6, death sentences of which only were carried out. Most convicts were given amnesty a few years later. The Treaty of Peace with Italy spelled the end of the Italian colonial empire , along with other border revisions.
In the Italian constitutional referendum the Italian monarchy was abolished, having been associated with the deprivations of the war and the Fascist rule, especially in the North. Unlike in Germany and Japan, no war crimes tribunals were held against Italian military and political leaders, though the Italian resistance summarily executed some of them such as Mussolini at the end of the war; the Togliatti amnesty , taking its name from the Communist Party secretary at the time, pardoned all wartime common and political crimes in Austria called Ostmark by the Germans was separated from Germany and divided into four zones of occupation.
After the war, the Allies rescinded Japanese pre-war annexations such as Manchuria , and Korea became independent. The Philippines and Guam were returned to the United States. The Dutch East Indies was to be handed back to the Dutch but was resisted leading to the Indonesian war for independence.
Roosevelt had secretly traded the Japanese Kurils and south Sakhalin to the Soviet Union in return for Soviet entry in the war with Japan. Hundreds of thousands of Japanese were forced to relocate to the Japanese main islands.
Okinawa became a main US staging point. The US covered large areas of it with military bases and continued to occupy it until , years after the end of the occupation of the main islands. The bases still remain. The Allies collected reparations from Japan. To further remove Japan as a potential future military threat, the Far Eastern Commission decided to de-industrialise Japan, with the goal of reducing Japanese standard of living to what prevailed between and In early , the Licensed Agencies for Relief in Asia were formed and permitted to supply Japanese with food and clothes.
In April the Johnston Committee Report recommended that the economy of Japan should be reconstructed due to the high cost to US taxpayers of continuous emergency aid. Japan provided no special assistance to these people until In the Winter War of —, the Soviet Union invaded neutral Finland and annexed some of its territory. From until , Finland aligned itself with Nazi Germany in a failed effort to regain lost territories from the Soviets.
Finland retained its independence following the war but remained subject to Soviet-imposed constraints in its domestic affairs. In June , the Soviet governments of the Baltic states carried out mass deportations of "enemies of the people"; as a result, many treated the invading Nazis as liberators when they invaded only a week later. The Atlantic Charter promised self-determination to people deprived of it during the war.
With the return of Soviet troops at the end of the war, the Forest Brothers mounted a guerrilla war. This continued until the mids. An estimated one million military and civilian Filipinos were killed from all causes; of these , were listed as killed in seventy-two war crime events. According to a United States analysis released years after the war, U. As a result of the new borders drawn by the victorious nations, large populations suddenly found themselves in hostile territory. Poland lost the Kresy region about half of its pre-War territory and received most of Germany east of the Oder-Neisse line , including the industrial regions of Silesia.
The German state of the Saar was temporarily a protectorate of France but later returned to German administration.
During the war, the United States government interned approximately , Japanese Americans and Japanese who lived along the Pacific coast of the United States in the wake of Imperial Japan 's attack on Pearl Harbor. After the war, some internees chose to return to Japan, while most remained in North America. This estimate is uncertain as both the Polish Communist government and the Soviet government did not keep track of the number of expelled.
Polish citizens killed in the war that originated from the Polish borderlands territory killed by both German Nazi regime and the Soviet regime or expelled to distant parts of Siberia were accounted as Russian, Ukrainian or Belarusian casualties of war in official Soviet historiography. This fact imposes additional difficulties in making the correct estimation of the number of Polish citizens forcibly transferred after the war.
Additionally, the Soviet Union transferred more than two million people within their own borders; these included Germans, Finns, Crimean Tatars , and Chechens. As Soviet troops marched across the Balkans, they committed rapes and robberies in Romania , Hungary , Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.
Foreign reports of Soviet brutality were denounced [ by whom? Rapes also occurred under other occupation forces, though the majority were committed by Soviet troops.
This offensive attitude among our troops is not at all general, but the percentage is large enough to have given our Army a pretty black name, and we too are considered an army of rapists. German soldiers left many war children behind in nations such as France and Denmark, which were occupied for an extended period. After the war, the children and their mothers often suffered recriminations. In Norway, the "Tyskerunger" German-kids suffered greatly.
Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II
Allies during World War II , the US and the USSR became competitors on the world stage and engaged in the Cold War , so called because it never resulted in overt, declared total war between the two powers but was instead characterized by espionage , political subversion and proxy wars. Internationally, alliances with the two blocs gradually shifted, with some nations trying to stay out of the Cold War through the Non-Aligned Movement. The War also saw a nuclear arms race between the two superpowers; part of the reason that the Cold War never became a "hot" war was that the Soviet Union and the United States had nuclear deterrents against each other, leading to a mutually assured destruction standoff. As a consequence of the war, the Allies created the United Nations , an organization for international cooperation and diplomacy, similar to the League of Nations. Members of the United Nations agreed to outlaw wars of aggression in an attempt to avoid a third world war.
Pinpointing the causes of a vast, global event like the Second World War is a challenging task for the historian. Events—especially enormous, multifaceted events—have multiple causes and multiple inputs. A proximate cause is an incident that appears to directly trigger an event, as the election of Abraham Lincoln in November and the shelling of Fort Sumter led to the outbreak of the Civil War. In the case of the Civil War, for example, historians often point to the growing sectional polarization that divided the nation in the s and s, the national debate over the future of slavery, and the divergent economic paths that distinguished North and South during the antebellum period. In the case of the Second World War, historians generally point to a series of conditions that helped contribute to its outbreak. The unbalanced Treaty of Versailles which forced a crippling peace on Germany to end the First World War and the global depression that enveloped the world during the s which led to particularly desperate conditions in many European nations as well as the United States usually emerge as two of the most crucial.
The Second World War was a war for democracy. Causes Of World War Ii. 1. Treaty of Versailles: An attempt was made at Paris Peace conference in to.
Aftermath of World War II
Various documents and treaties placed stringent terms on Axis powers to prevent future hostilities. An earlier version of the text was signed in a ceremony in Reims in the early hours of May 7, , but the Soviets rejected that version as it underplayed their role in the defeat of Germany in Berlin. In the West, May 8 is known as Victory in Europe Day, whereas in post-Soviet states the Victory Day is celebrated on May 9 since the definitive signing occurred after midnight Moscow time.
There are many different cause for World War II. The Treaty of Versailles was a complete and almost a total failure due to the distaste of many of the allied powers. Here we have Japanese militarism. Japanese militarism spread rapidly throughout Japan, being it is that Japan has an emperor but at this time the military had more of a say than the crowned emperor.
World War II , also called Second World War , conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years — The war was in many respects a continuation, after an uneasy year hiatus , of the disputes left unsettled by World War I. The 40,,—50,, deaths incurred in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history. Great Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3.
Hitler dragged Europe back into war in The railway carriage in which the armistice was signed was symbolically used again in when the French succumbed to German occupation. Some of the high-profile agitators at this time were left-wing Jews, which fuelled the conspiracy theory of a Jewish Bolshevik disloyalty that later gained so much traction as Hitler laid the psychological groundwork in preparing Germany for another war.
Second World War (1939-1945): Causes and Consequences
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Historians from many countries have given considerable attention to studying and understanding the causes of World War II , a global war from to that was the deadliest conflict in human history. The immediate precipitating event was the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany on September 1, , and the subsequent declarations of war on Germany made by Britain and France , but many other prior events have been suggested as ultimate causes. Primary themes in historical analysis of the war's origins include the political takeover of Germany in by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party ; Japanese militarism against China , which led to the Second Sino-Japanese War ; Italian aggression against Ethiopia , which led to the Second Italo-Ethiopian War ; and Germany's initial success in negotiating a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union to divide territorial control of Eastern Europe between them. During the interwar period , deep anger arose in the Weimar Republic regarding the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles , which punished Germany for its role in World War I with severe conditions and heavy financial reparations in order to prevent it from ever becoming a military power again.
The major causes of World War II were numerous. They include the impact of the Treaty of. Versailles following WWI, the worldwide economic depression, failure.