File Name: scientific design of intake and exhaust systems creator.zip
Depending on the engine platform and design of the manifold, the shape and size can vary. High-quality aftermarket exhausts will add power, increase style and refine the exhaust tone. Use this decibel chart for reference when deciding if an exhaust system is too loud.
- 7.1: Catalytic Converters
- The New BMW Six-Cylinder Diesel Engine with Three Turbochargers
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7.1: Catalytic Converters
Today restrictions on pollutant emissions require the use of catalyst-based after-treatment systems as a standard both in SI and in Diesel engines. The application of monolith cores with a honeycomb structure is an established practice: however, to overcome drawbacks such as weak mass transfer from the bulk flow to the catalytic walls as well as poor flow homogenization, the use of ceramic foams has been recently investigated as an alternative showing better conversion efficiencies even accepting higher flow through losses. The scope of this paper is to analyse the effects of foam substrates characteristics on engine performance. Engine developed by the authors has been enhanced improving the heat exchange model of the exhaust manifold to take account of thermal transients and adding an original 0D model of the catalytic converter to describe mass flows and thermal processes. The model has been used to simulate a 1. Effects of honeycomb and foam substrates on fuel consumption and on variations of catalyst temperatures and pressures are compared in the paper.
The New BMW Six-Cylinder Diesel Engine with Three Turbochargers
Present day engines are required to have more engine power and are also required to meet the strict pollution standards. In an automobile the exhaust muffler plays an integral role in reducing the sound of the automobile, as well as the ride itself. In order to maintain a desired noise and comfortable ride, the modes of a muffler need to be analysed. Here dynamic modal analyses were carried out to determine the mode shapes, stresses and deformations of exhaust muffler using CAE analysis. Published by American Institute of Science. Mufflers are installed within the exhaust system of most internal combustion engines, although the muffler is not designed to serve any primary exhaust function.
Show all documents In the building designed as the strategic hub for the purpose of urban exhibition and conventional indus- try accommodates large conference rooms and exhibition halls for international events. To control back pressure an ideal length is required to allow for reflected pressure waves to arrive back at the exhaust port in time for the valve overlap period. Changes in exhaust gas temperature throughout the engine revs results in a dynamic speed of sound, c, and therefore the optimum length can only be accounted for at one engine speed and its modes thereafter. Also, any change in geometry within the exhaust system will result in reflected pressure waves, and also significantly affect the length of the exhaust pipes. Because of the complicated nature of the scavenging effects, literature reviews often provide guideline equations which are suited to a specific engine assuming an ideal straight exhaust pipe. Two equations by Smith equation and Bell equation give estimates lengths from cylinder characteristics and expected engine speeds and are given by.
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Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold. The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds , particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that reduces toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction an oxidation and a reduction reaction. Catalytic converters are usually used with internal combustion engines fueled by either gasoline or diesel —including lean-burn engines as well as kerosene heaters and stoves. The first widespread introduction of catalytic converters was in the United States automobile market.
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ГЛАВА 53 Токуген Нуматака лежал на массажном столе в своем кабинете на верхнем этаже. Личная массажистка разминала затекшие мышцы его шеи. Погрузив ладони в складки жира на плечах шефа, она медленно двигалась вниз, к полотенцу, прикрывавшему нижнюю часть его спины. Ее руки спускались все ниже, забираясь под полотенце. Нуматака почти ничего не замечал. Мысли его были .
Все данные говорят, что Танкадо ни о чем таком даже не подозревал.
Копия, которую он разместил, зашифрована. Ее можно скачать, но нельзя открыть. Очень хитро придумано.