Handbook Of Basal Ganglia Structure And Function Pdf

handbook of basal ganglia structure and function pdf

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The Basal Ganglia comprise a group of forebrain nuclei that are interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. Basal ganglia circuits are involved in various functions, including motor control and learning, sensorimotor integration, reward and cognition. The importance of these nuclei for normal brain function and behavior is emphasized by the numerous and diverse disorders associated with basal ganglia dysfunction, including Parkinson's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, dystonia, and psychostimulant addiction.

Basal ganglia disease is a group of physical problems that occur when the group of nuclei in the brain known as the basal ganglia fail to properly suppress unwanted movements or to properly prime upper motor neuron circuits to initiate motor function. Proper activation or deactivation of these neurons is an integral component for proper movement. If something causes too much basal ganglia output, then the ventral anterior VA and ventral lateral VL thalamocortical projection neurons become too inhibited, and one cannot initiate voluntary movement. These disorders are known as hypokinetic disorders. However, a disorder leading to abnormally low output of the basal ganglia leads to reduced inhibition, and thus excitation, of the thalamocortical projection neurons VA and VL which synapse onto the cortex.

Functions and dysfunctions of the basal ganglia in humans

While it is well established that language processing is dependent on cortical mechanisms, the role of the subcortex in language function has been a point of contention since the initial clinical-anatomical observations of language deficits following vascular subcortical lesions. This chapter reviews both traditional proposals and recent discoveries of the functional and structural connectivity of the basal ganglia and thalamus with the cortex, suggesting that these subcortical structures are well positioned to contribute to language processing.

While there is still considerable conjecture regarding the role of the basal ganglia in a number of these operations, there is now considerable evidence that the thalamus influences lexical-semantic processing through attentional engagement, while striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits most likely influence lexical-semantic functions, bilingual language processing, and sentence comprehension through domain-general mechanisms, including controlled selection and suppression.

David A. He is active in the fields of psycholinguistics, language neuroscience, and clinical aphasia management. Anthony J. His research, focused primarily within the field of Language Neuroscience, uses neuroimaging and behavioral paradigms to advance current understanding of language processing and language learning in healthy adults and people with neurological impairment. Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase.

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Sign in with your library card Please enter your library card number. Search within Abstract and Keywords While it is well established that language processing is dependent on cortical mechanisms, the role of the subcortex in language function has been a point of contention since the initial clinical-anatomical observations of language deficits following vascular subcortical lesions.

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Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function - E-bog

Intrinsic circuit anatomy of the motor circuit. The cortical motor areas give rise to a specific motor subcircuit. CM indicates centromedian nucleus of thalamus; CMAr, rostral portion of cingulate motor area; CMAd, dorsal portion of cingulate motor area; CMAv, ventral portion of cingulate motor area; GPe, external segment of the globus pallidus; GPi, internal segment of the globus pallidus; M1, primary motor cortex; Pf, parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus; PMd, dorsal premotor cortex; PMv, ventral premotor cortex; PPN, pedunculopontine nucleus; SMA, supplementary motor area; SNc, substantia nigra pars compacta; SNr, substantia nigra pars reticulata; STN, subthalamic nucleus; VApc, ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus pars parvocellularis; VLm, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus pars medialis; VLo, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus pars oralis; VLcr, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus rostral pars caudalis; c, caudal; cl, caudolateral; and d, dorsal. Circuits and Circuit Disorders of the Basal Ganglia. Arch Neurol. Views of the anatomy and function of the basal ganglia and their role in motor and nonmotor disorders have undergone major revisions during the past decades.


Read the latest chapters of Handbook of Behavioral Neuroscience at Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function Pages xxiii-xxiv: Download PDF.


The Basal Ganglia

This text presents the contemporary understanding of the basal ganglia. In a groundbreaking synthesis, diverse research perspectives grounded in neuroscience and neurobiology are bought together to reflect an integrated understanding of these deep brain structures. The volume clarifies and broadens perspectives of the basal ganglia that have over the past few decades extended its functional-anatomic roles far beyond motor-centered models.

Handbook of Basal Ganglia Structure and Function, Volume 24

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