The Military And Politics In Pakistan Pdf

the military and politics in pakistan pdf

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Military is a formidable political actor in Pakistan, capable of influencing the nature and direction of political change. Besides, it dominated the political system behind the scenes for more than two decades. Hence, there were only few intermittent periods of real democratic rule in Pakistan.

Its purpose was to test a hypothesis that posited that the colonial authority structure and the partition-oriented structural dynamics provided an important structural construct in explaining politics and the military in post-colonial Pakistan.

Pakistan continues to face multiple sources of internal and external conflict. While incidences of domestic terrorism have reduced, in part due to measures taken by the Pakistani state, extremism and intolerance of diversity has grown. There is some recognition by the state that instead of merely kinetic responses holistic counterterrorism policies are needed to counteract this trend. The inability of state institutions to reliably provide peaceful ways to resolve grievances has encouraged groups to seek violence as a legitimate alternative. While peaceful political transitions occurred in both and , the country is still facing mounting debt crisis and a perennial trade imbalance on the economic front.

The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan

Alternating between strong military rulers and weak civilian governments, Pakistan has failed to develop healthy political institutions, a lasting democracy, an impartial judiciary, or a thriving economy. Since its birth in August , Pakistan has grappled with an acute sense of insecurity in the midst of a continuing identity crisis, writes Ahmed Rashid, a Pakistan analyst, in the book Descent into Chaos. Race and Ethnicity. As a result, he argued, "Pakistan is far from developing a consistent [form] of government, with persisting political polarization PDF along three major, intersecting fault lines: between civilians and the military, among different ethnic and provincial groups, and between Islamists and secularists.

Successive military coups have weakened political institutions. On the other hand, corrupt civilian governments have repeatedly provided the rationale for military coups, in which generals offered order in the midst of chaos.

Historically, the dominant role played by Punjab, which is home to over 55 percent of the population and provides the bulk of the army and bureaucracy, has caused much resentment among the other three provinces, say experts.

Rashid writes: "Punjab [Province] never accepted Pakistan as a multi-ethnic state necessitating equal political rights, greater autonomy for the smaller provinces, and a more equitable distribution of funds. However, neither military nor civilian governments have ever really implemented provincial autonomy. But a report by the International Crisis Group argued political devolution, in fact, "has proved little more than a cover for further centralized control. Islamabad has always had limited writ in the autonomous tribal areas in the northwest, and the undetermined status of the Federally Administered Northern Areas, the northernmost area of the country, has fostered an unstable region.

These groups continue to run camps in the FATA, the Northern Areas, and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, among other places, and are now increasingly turning on their creators.

Rights over natural resources have remained at the center of demands for provincial autonomy. One long-standing dispute is over water. Sindh Province claims Punjab violated the pre-independence agreement the two provinces had for the distribution of waters by constructing new irrigation networks. The proposed construction of dams on the Indus River, the main source of water in the country, has also prompted anger from the three smaller provinces, which are concerned about the environmental impact as well as a pro-Punjab bias in the water allocations.

Ownership of natural resources and distribution of revenues from oil and gas resources in energy-starved Pakistan are other factors feeding tensions, especially in Sindh and Balochistan Provinces. The proposed privatization of Qadirpur Gas Field in Sindh in prompted protests from employees of the national gas company and opposition parties, resulting in suspension of the plan until a national consensus was reached.

Also, it receives only about one-fifth as much in royalty payments as the other gas-producing provinces, writes Robert G. This means a lack of political parties that can respond to national level concerns, says Markey. Balochistan has seen multiple, usually ethnically driven, insurgency movements since , and the Pakistani state has often used brutal military force to suppress them. In recent times, these insurgencies have been driven by political and economic marginalization.

The ethnic Pashtun-dominated Taliban is also active throughout Balochistan, particularly in the city of Quetta. Some U. Created as a homeland for Indian Muslims in August , Pakistan grappled with the question of its identity even before it was formed--whether to be a secular democratic country for Muslims and other religious minorities or an Islamic state.

However, Cohen, in The Idea of Pakistan, notes "most Pakistanis in rural areas remain vague about their Islam, and their religion is strongly intermixed with folk practices, Sufi beliefs, and even Hinduism and Buddhism.

Experts say rising secular conflict in Pakistan is a consequence of decades of Islamization and the marginalization of secular democratic forces. Both civilian and military Pakistani governments have allowed religious extremist organizations to flourish. For instance, the military supported and armed Islamist militants fighting Indian rule in the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir and backed the Taliban in its pursuit of a client regime in Afghanistan.

The focus on building an ideological state has caused Pakistan to lag behind in almost all areas that define a functional modern state, Haqqani wrote in The political use of Islam by the state "promotes an aggressive competition for official patronage between and within the many variations of Sunni and Shia Islam, with the clerical elites of major sects and subsects striving to build up their political parties, raise jihadi militias, [and] expand [madrassa] networks," said a International Crisis Group report.

The political disenfranchisement of regions like the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in the northwest and the Federally Administered Northern Areas in the northeast have turned them into sanctuaries for sectarian and international terrorists, and centers of arms and drug trade, according to the ICG report.

Pakistan spends only about 2 percent of gross domestic product GDP on education and 0. Until recently, Pakistan was experiencing economic growth of over 6 percent each year.

This growth has increased disparities between regions and between rural and urban areas. In a paper PDF published by the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Pakistani experts note the poverty level is highest among landless households.

Seventy-five percent of households own no land in the country. The paper recommends a broad-based land reform program, including land redistribution, fair and enforceable tenancy contracts, rural public works programs, and access to credit. Tackling poverty is also essential to defeating rising extremism in the country; some experts say poor governance has allowed madrassas teaching Wahabbism--an orthodox form of Sunni Islam similar to that practiced in Saudi Arabia--to flourish in Pakistan.

These religious schools continue to provide recruits to the Taliban and other militant groups inside Pakistan. Experts say Pakistan needs to undertake a wide range of reforms, among them more equitable land distribution; devolution of administrative, political, and financial responsibilities to the provinces; and increasing investment in education and health.

A report PDF by a U. These include U. Some of these recommendations are echoed in pending congressional legislation that proposes to triple U. Digital Policy. United States. Diplomatic Corps? Foreign Policy. Haass March 1, Skip to main content. Backgrounder Current political and economic issues succinctly explained. This publication is now archived. A Weak State Alternating between strong military rulers and weak civilian governments, Pakistan has failed to develop healthy political institutions, a lasting democracy, an impartial judiciary, or a thriving economy.

Daily News Brief. A summary of global news developments with CFR analysis delivered to your inbox each morning. Most weekdays. Email Address. President Biden has vowed to diversify the top ranks of government agencies. The small and shrinking number of senior Black diplomats, in particular, could undermine U. The nuclear arms race was perhaps the most alarming feature of the Cold War competition between the United States and Soviet Union.

Over the decades, the two sides signed various arms control agreements as a means to manage their rivalry and limit the risk of nuclear war. However, deep fissures have reemerged in the U.

Pakistan’s Fragile Foundations

The country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers. Executive power is vested with the national cabinet which is headed by the prime minister Imran Khan ; , who works coherently along with the bicameral parliament and the judicature. The head of state is the president who is elected by the electoral college for a five-year term. Arif Alvi is currently the president of Pakistan The president was a significant authority until the 18th amendment , passed in , stripped the presidency of its major powers. Since then, Pakistan has been shifted from a Semi-presidential system to a purely parliamentary government.


Given the delicate political situation, strong opposition to Bhutto in Punjab, and a well-established tradition of the military's direct role in politics, a return of the.


The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan

Costs and Benefits. Military rule in Pakistan started in wit h General Zia ul-Haq took power in a bloodless coup and ruled under martial law. In , Zia declared elections which put in place a parliament and a civilian Prime Minister, Muhammad Khan Junejo, who was later dismissed by Zia ul-Haq. Zia was killed in a mysterious plane crash in After Zia ul-Haq was killed, Benazir Bhutto was elected prime minister and became the effective head of government in December 2,

Alternating between strong military rulers and weak civilian governments, Pakistan has failed to develop healthy political institutions, a lasting democracy, an impartial judiciary, or a thriving economy. Since its birth in August , Pakistan has grappled with an acute sense of insecurity in the midst of a continuing identity crisis, writes Ahmed Rashid, a Pakistan analyst, in the book Descent into Chaos. Race and Ethnicity. As a result, he argued, "Pakistan is far from developing a consistent [form] of government, with persisting political polarization PDF along three major, intersecting fault lines: between civilians and the military, among different ethnic and provincial groups, and between Islamists and secularists.

The long years of direct and indirect rule have given enough experience and confidence to the military to overshadow core political institutions and processes even when it stays in the barracks. It retains professional skills, organizational capacity, discipline, and determination to set aside civilian processes through direct intervention.

Project MUSE Mission

 Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо. Стратмор покачал головой. - Чем быстрее мы внесем изменение в программу, тем легче будет все остальное. У нас нет гарантий, что Дэвид найдет вторую копию. Если по какой-то случайности кольцо попадет не в те руки, я бы предпочел, чтобы мы уже внесли нужные изменения в алгоритм.

Asia Policy

 Итак, кольцо взял немец.

Сообщения поступали мгновенно, и их нельзя было отследить. Он торопливо повернул выключатель. Стекла очков блеснули, и его пальцы снова задвигались в воздухе. Он, как обычно, записал имена жертв. Контакты на кончиках пальцев замкнулись, и на линзах очков, подобно бестелесным духам, замелькали буквы.

The Military & Politics in Pakistan 1947-1997 | Download Complete Book in PDF

Сьюзан приходилось слышать, что сильный страх парализует тело, - теперь она в этом убедилась. Ее мозг мгновенно осознал происходящее, и она, вновь обретя способность двигаться, попятилась назад в темноте с одной только мыслью - бежать.

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