File Name: edward r murrow and the birth of broadcast journalism .zip
Buckley Jr. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism. Copyright by Bob Edwards.
- Edward R. Murrow: Inventing Broadcast Journalism
- Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism Bob Edwards
Long before the era of the news anchor, the pundit, and the mini-cam, one man blazed a trail that thousands would follow.
Edward R. Murrow: Inventing Broadcast Journalism
During the war he recruited and worked closely with a team of war correspondents who came to be known as the Murrow Boys. A pioneer of radio and television news broadcasting, Murrow produced a series of reports on his television program See It Now which helped lead to the censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Fellow journalists Eric Sevareid , Ed Bliss , Bill Downs , Dan Rather , and Alexander Kendrick consider Murrow one of journalism's greatest figures, noting his honesty and integrity in delivering the news.
His parents were Quakers. He attended high school in nearby Edison , and was president of the student body in his senior year and excelled on the debate team. He was also a member of the basketball team which won the Skagit County championship. After graduation from high school in , Murrow enrolled at Washington State College now Washington State University across the state in Pullman , and eventually majored in speech.
A member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity , he was also active in college politics. By his teen years, Murrow went by the nickname "Ed" and during his second year of college, he changed his name from Egbert to Edward.
In , while attending the annual convention of the National Student Federation of America , Murrow gave a speech urging college students to become more interested in national and world affairs; this led to his election as president of the federation.
After earning his bachelor's degree in , he moved back east to New York. Murrow was assistant director of the Institute of International Education from to and served as assistant secretary of the Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars , which helped prominent German scholars who had been dismissed from academic positions. He married Janet Huntington Brewster on March 12, Murrow joined CBS as director of talks and education in and remained with the network for his entire career.
Murrow's job was to line up newsmakers who would appear on the network to talk about the issues of the day. But the onetime Washington State speech major was intrigued by Trout's on-air delivery, and Trout gave Murrow tips on how to communicate effectively on radio.
The position did not involve on-air reporting; his job was persuading European figures to broadcast over the CBS network, which was in direct competition with NBC 's two radio networks. During this time, he made frequent trips around Europe. Shirer , and assigned him to a similar post on the continent. This marked the beginning of the "Murrow Boys" team of war reporters. Murrow gained his first glimpse of fame during the March Anschluss , in which Adolf Hitler engineered the annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany.
While Murrow was in Poland arranging a broadcast of children's choruses, he got word from Shirer of the annexation—and the fact that Shirer could not get the story out through Austrian state radio facilities. Murrow immediately sent Shirer to London, where he delivered an uncensored, eyewitness account of the Anschluss. Murrow then chartered the only transportation available, a passenger plane, to fly from Warsaw to Vienna so he could take over for Shirer.
At the request of CBS management in New York, Murrow and Shirer put together a European News Roundup of reaction to the Anschluss, which brought correspondents from various European cities together for a single broadcast. Schwellenbach in Washington, D. Reporter Frank Gervasi , in Rome, was unable to find a transmitter to broadcast reaction from the Italian capital but phoned his script to Shirer in London, who read it on the air.
It's now nearly in the morning, and Herr Hitler has not yet arrived. The broadcast was considered revolutionary at the time. Featuring multipoint, live reports transmitted by shortwave in the days before modern technology and without each of the parties necessarily being able to hear one another , it came off almost flawlessly.
The special became the basis for World News Roundup —broadcasting's oldest news series, which still runs each weekday morning and evening on the CBS Radio Network. Their incisive reporting heightened the American appetite for radio news, with listeners regularly waiting for Murrow's shortwave broadcasts, introduced by analyst H. Shirer would describe his Berlin experiences in his best-selling book Berlin Diary. When the war broke out in September , Murrow stayed in London, and later provided live radio broadcasts during the height of the Blitz in London After Dark.
These live, shortwave broadcasts relayed on CBS electrified radio audiences as news programming never had: previous war coverage had mostly been provided by newspaper reports, along with newsreels seen in movie theaters; earlier radio news programs had simply featured an announcer in a studio reading wire service reports.
Murrow's reports, especially during the Blitz, began with what became his signature opening, " This is London," delivered with his vocal emphasis on the word this , followed by the hint of a pause before the rest of the phrase. This is London calling. Murrow achieved celebrity status as a result of his war reports. They led to his second famous catchphrase, at the end of , with every night's German bombing raid, Londoners who might not necessarily see each other the next morning often closed their conversations with "good night, and good luck.
So, at the end of one broadcast, Murrow ended his segment with "Good night, and good luck. When Murrow returned to the U. Franklin D. Roosevelt sent a welcome-back telegram, which was read at the dinner, and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish gave an encomium that commented on the power and intimacy of Murrow's wartime dispatches.
You have destroyed the superstition that what is done beyond 3, miles of water is not really done at all. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred less than a week after this speech, and the U. Murrow flew on 25 Allied combat missions in Europe during the war,  : providing additional reports from the planes as they droned on over Europe recorded for delayed broadcast.
Murrow's skill at improvising vivid descriptions of what was going on around or below him, derived in part from his college training in speech, aided the effectiveness of his radio broadcasts.
Many of them, Shirer included, were later dubbed " Murrow's Boys "—despite Breckinridge being a woman. Cronkite initially accepted, but after receiving a better offer from his current employer, United Press , he turned down the offer.
Murrow so closely cooperated with the British that in Winston Churchill offered to make him joint director-general of the BBC in charge of programming. Although he declined the job, during the war Murrow did fall in love with Churchill's daughter-in-law, Pamela ,  : —,  whose other American lovers included Averell Harriman , whom she married many years later.
Pamela wanted Murrow to marry her, and he considered it; however, after his wife gave birth to their only child, Casey, he ended the affair. After the war, Murrow recruited journalists such as Alexander Kendrick , David Schoenbrun , Daniel Schorr  and Robert Pierpoint into the circle of the Boys as a virtual "second generation", though the track record of the original wartime crew set it apart.
He met emaciated survivors including Petr Zenkl , children with identification tattoos , and "bodies stacked up like cordwood" in the crematorium. In his report three days later, Murrow said:  : — I pray you to believe what I have said about Buchenwald. I have reported what I saw and heard, but only part of it. For most of it I have no words If I've offended you by this rather mild account of Buchenwald, I'm not in the least sorry.
In December Murrow reluctantly accepted William S. Paley 's offer to become a vice president of the network and head of CBS News, and made his last news report from London in March After the war, he maintained close friendships with his previous hires, including members of the Murrow Boys.
During Murrow's tenure as vice president, his relationship with Shirer ended in in one of the great confrontations of American broadcast journalism, when Shirer was fired by CBS. He said he resigned in the heat of an interview at the time, but was actually terminated. Williams, maker of shaving soap, withdrew its sponsorship of Shirer's Sunday news show.
CBS, of which Murrow was then vice president for public affairs, decided to "move in a new direction," hired a new host, and let Shirer go. There are different versions of these events; Shirer's was not made public until Shirer contended that the root of his troubles was the network and sponsor not standing by him because of his comments critical of the Truman Doctrine , as well as other comments that were considered outside of the mainstream.
Shirer and his supporters felt he was being muzzled because of his views. Meanwhile, Murrow, and even some of Murrow's Boys, felt that Shirer was coasting on his high reputation and not working hard enough to bolster his analyses with his own research.
The episode hastened Murrow's desire to give up his network vice presidency and return to newscasting, and it foreshadowed his own problems to come with his friend Paley, boss of CBS. Murrow and Paley had become close when the network chief himself joined the war effort, setting up Allied radio outlets in Italy and North Africa.
After the war, he would often go to Paley directly to settle any problems he had. ET newscast sponsored by Campbell's Soup and anchored by his old friend and announcing coach Bob Trout. For the next several years Murrow focused on radio, and in addition to news reports he produced special presentations for CBS News Radio.
In , he narrated a half-hour radio documentary called "The Case of the Flying Saucer. Murrow interviewed both Kenneth Arnold and astronomer Donald Menzel. From to , Murrow was the host of This I Believe , which offered ordinary people the opportunity to speak for five minutes on radio.
As the s began, Murrow began his television career by appearing in editorial "tailpieces" on the CBS Evening News and in the coverage of special events. This came despite his own misgivings about the new medium and its emphasis on pictures rather than ideas. In the first episode, Murrow explained: "This is an old team, trying to learn a new trade. In , Murrow launched a second weekly TV show, a series of celebrity interviews entitled Person to Person.
See It Now focused on a number of controversial issues in the s, but it is best remembered as the show that criticized McCarthyism and the Red Scare , contributing, if not leading, to the political downfall of Senator Joseph McCarthy.
McCarthy had previously commended Murrow for his fairness in reporting. The broadcast closed with Murrow's commentary covering a variety of topics, including the danger of nuclear war against the backdrop of a mushroom cloud. Murrow also offered indirect criticism of McCarthyism , saying: "Nations have lost their freedom while preparing to defend it, and if we in this country confuse dissent with disloyalty, we deny the right to be wrong.
However, Friendly wanted to wait for the right time to do so. Murrow and Friendly paid for their own newspaper advertisement for the program; they were not allowed to use CBS's money for the publicity campaign or even use the CBS logo. The broadcast contributed to a nationwide backlash against McCarthy and is seen as a turning point in the history of television. It provoked tens of thousands of letters, telegrams, and phone calls to CBS headquarters, running 15 to 1 in favor.
McCarthy accepted the invitation and appeared on April 6, In his response, McCarthy rejected Murrow's criticism and accused him of being a communist sympathizer [McCarthy also accused Murrow of being a member of the Industrial Workers of the World which Murrow denied.
McCarthy also made an appeal to the public by attacking his detractors, stating:. Ordinarily, I would not take time out from the important work at hand to answer Murrow.
However, in this case I feel justified in doing so because Murrow is a symbol, a leader, and the cleverest of the jackal pack which is always found at the throat of anyone who dares to expose individual Communists and traitors.
Ultimately, McCarthy's rebuttal served only to further decrease his already fading popularity. Murrow's hard-hitting approach to the news, however, cost him influence in the world of television. See It Now occasionally scored high ratings usually when it was tackling a particularly controversial subject , but in general, it did not score well on prime-time television.
When a quiz show phenomenon began and took TV by storm in the mids, Murrow realized the days of See It Now as a weekly show were numbered.
Purchasing options are not available in this country. Fred Friendly was the single most important personality in news and public affairs programming during the first four decades of American television. Murrow, invented the television documentary format and subsequently oversaw the birth of public television. Juggling the roles of producer, policy maker, and teacher, Friendly had an unprecedented impact on the development of CBS in its heyday, wielded extensive influence at the Ford Foundation under the presidency of McGeorge Bundy, and trained a generation of journalists at Columbia University during a tumultuous period of student revolt. Ralph Engelman's biography is the first comprehensive account of Friendly's life and work. Known as a "brilliant monster," Friendly stood at the center of television's unique response to McCarthyism, Watergate, and the Vietnam War, and the pitched battles he fought continue to resonate in the troubled world of television news.
During the war he recruited and worked closely with a team of war correspondents who came to be known as the Murrow Boys. A pioneer of radio and television news broadcasting, Murrow produced a series of reports on his television program See It Now which helped lead to the censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy. Fellow journalists Eric Sevareid , Ed Bliss , Bill Downs , Dan Rather , and Alexander Kendrick consider Murrow one of journalism's greatest figures, noting his honesty and integrity in delivering the news. His parents were Quakers. He attended high school in nearby Edison , and was president of the student body in his senior year and excelled on the debate team.
Я вызвал тебя сюда, потому что мне нужен союзник, а не следователь. Сегодня у меня было ужасное утро. Вчера вечером я скачал файл Танкадо и провел у принтера несколько часов, ожидая, когда ТРАНСТЕКСТ его расколет. На рассвете я усмирил свою гордыню и позвонил директору - и, уверяю тебя, это был бы тот еще разговорчик. Доброе утро, сэр. Извините, что пришлось вас разбудить.
После долгой паузы он наконец посмотрел ей в глаза и долго не отводил взгляда. - Назови мне самое большое время, которое ТРАНСТЕКСТ затрачивал на взламывание кода. Что за чепуха. И ради этого он вызвал меня в субботу.
Кроме того, - добавила она, - я хотела бы напомнить Стратмору, что Большой Брат не спускает с него глаз. Пусть хорошенько подумает, прежде чем затевать очередную авантюру с целью спасения мира. - Она подняла телефонную трубку и начала набирать номер. Бринкерхофф сидел как на иголках.
- Я, конечно, предположил, что это не та Северная Дакота, которую мы ищем, но на всякий случай проверил эту запись. Представь себе мое изумление, когда я обнаружил множество сообщений Энсея Танкадо.
Edward R. Murrow and the Birth of Broadcast Journalism Bob Edwards
Эта машина помогла предотвратить десятки преступлений, но связанная с ней информация строго засекречена и никогда не будет раскрыта. Причина такой секретности проста: правительство не может допустить массовой истерии. Никто не знает, как поведет себя общество, узнав, что группы фундаменталистов дважды за прошлый год угрожали ядерным объектам, расположенным на территории США. Ядерное нападение было, однако, не единственной угрозой. Только в прошлом месяце благодаря ТРАНСТЕКСТУ удалось предотвратить одну из самых изощренных террористических акций, с которыми приходилось сталкиваться агентству. Некая антиправительственная организация разработала план под кодовым названием Шервудский лес. Его целью была Нью-Йоркская фондовая биржа, а замыслом - перераспределение богатства.
- Нам сейчас пригодится любая помощь. Посверкивая в красноватом свете туннельных ламп, перед ними возникла стальная дверь. Фонтейн набрал код на специальной углубленной панели, после чего прикоснулся к небольшой стеклянной пластинке. Сигнальная лампочка вспыхнула, и массивная стена с грохотом отъехала влево. В АНБ было только одно помещение, еще более засекреченное, чем шифровалка, и Сьюзан поняла, что сейчас она окажется в святая святых агентства. ГЛАВА 109 Командный центр главного банка данных АНБ более всего напоминал Центр управления полетами НАСА в миниатюре. Десяток компьютерных терминалов располагались напротив видеоэкрана, занимавшего всю дальнюю стену площадью девять на двенадцать метров.
Murrow, the first master of television news but perhaps bestremembered for his radio reports from London under the blitz of German bombings during World War II.
Она отдала это чертово кольцо. - Я пыталась помочь умирающему, - объясняла Росио. - Но сам он, похоже, этого не. Он… это кольцо… он совал его нам в лицо, тыкал своими изуродованными пальцами. Он все протягивал к нам руку - чтобы мы взяли кольцо.
У нее красно-бело-синие волосы. Парень фыркнул. - Сегодня годовщина Иуды Табу. У всех такие… - На ней майка с британским флагом и серьга в форме черепа в одном ухе. По выражению лица панка Беккер понял, что тот знает, о ком идет речь. Мелькнул лучик надежды.
Новых сообщений не. Сьюзан прочитала их. Стратмор в отчаянии нажал на кнопку просмотра.
Когда он клал конверт в одну из ячеек, Беккер повернулся, чтобы задать последний вопрос: - Как мне вызвать такси. Консьерж повернул голову и. Но Беккер не слушал, что тот. Он рассчитал все .
Старшие должностные лица АНБ имели право разбираться со своими кризисными ситуациями, не уведомляя об этом исполнительную власть страны. АНБ было единственной разведывательной организацией США, освобожденной от обязанности отчитываться перед федеральным правительством. Стратмор нередко пользовался этой привилегией: он предпочитал творить свое волшебство в уединении. - Коммандер, - все же возразила она, - это слишком крупная неприятность, и с ней не стоит оставаться наедине.
Кто-то должен иметь возможность оценивать и отделять одно от другого. В этом и заключается наша работа. Это наш долг.