File Name: effect of cannabis use on cognitive functions and driving ability .zip
- Marijuana: Does it Cause Cognitive Impairment During Driving?
- Cannabis use and cognitive dysfunction
- Effects of cannabis
The impact of cannabis on the adolescent compared to adult brain is of interest to researchers and society alike. From a theoretical perspective, adolescence represents a period of both risk and resilience to the harms of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders. The aim of this systematic review is to provide a critical examination of the moderating role of age on the relationship between cannabis use and cognition.
Metrics details. Marijuana has become the most commonly detected non-alcohol substance among drivers in the United States and Europe. Use of marijuana has been shown to impair driving performance and increase crash risk. This review examines major considerations when developing these threshold THC concentrations and specifics of legal THC limits for drivers adopted by different jurisdictions in the United States and other countries. Drugged driving is a safety concern of increasing importance in the United States and in Europe Asbridge [ ]; Brady and Li [ ]; Li et al.
Marijuana: Does it Cause Cognitive Impairment During Driving?
Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia currently have legalized medical marijuana and 10 states completely have decriminalized the substance. I believe that the use of marijuana in chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesics, or other controlled substances, puts them, and others, at significant increased risk for adverse outcomes, especially in settings that require complete attention, alertness, and mental acuity.
These skills are required while driving and frequently necessary at the workplace. In addition, prescribing medications to patients who use marijuana may put you, the prescriber, and your medical practice at increased risk for lawsuits.
However, there is a difference between a therapeutic dose of medicinal marijuana in the form of Marinol and tetrahydrocannabinol THC from smoking marijuana—both in terms of known dosage, potency, and purity. Reviews of the pharmacology of marijuana indicate that the percentage of THC contained in current marijuana cigarettes often is many times greater than its counterpart from the s and s.
Ashton noted that most of the research on cannabis was performed in the s using doses of 5 to 25 mg THC. My bias has come from personal experience with patients, as well as scientific studies. A large body of data demonstrates that marijuana may cause significant mental status changes, including altered perception with occasional hallucinations and delusions, euphoria and dysphoria.
We must consider the issue of risk to the individual smoking marijuana not only from immediate usage but also long-term effects, including the possibility of substance abuse. My clinical practice consists of a high-risk population, including current or former substance abusers. This opinion was confirmed by clinical evaluation as well as responses on follow-up questionnaires of these patients.
Patients were also asked to respond to the following questions:. My own experience was confirmed in an observational study by Pesce et al. Taking this into consideration, I revisited this issue with many of my high-risk pain patients and the majority agreed that legalizing recreational marijuana for individuals over age 18 can be expected to result in major psychosocial problems as well as significant added risks in the workplace, in many activities requiring full attention and concentration eg, riding bicycles and other athletic activities , as well as an increase in driving and work accidents.
Their comments also reinforce my conviction that many children, adolescents, and young adults are likely to be exposed to recreational marijuana more readily than would have been the case when there were established legal sanctions against marijuana use.
It is now clear that marijuana plays a significant role in motor vehicle accidents MVA across the United States. Ramaekers et al also reported an increased crash risk among THC users, likely due to impairment of cognitive and psychomotor skills, as well as actual driving performance.
CTT is used to detect any impairment present regardless of the causation ie, fatigue, alcohol, or cannabis intake. In the study, subjects were trained on driving simulation software before taking a performance test. Performance tests were conducted at regular intervals between 15 minutes and 6 hours after smoking and included measures of CTT, motor impulsivity Stop signal task and cognitive function Tower of London. CTT performance declined after cannabis use by occasional cannabis users and the detrimental effects of THC use were detected up to 3 to 4 hours following cannabis smoking.
Further investigation of the impact of THC on psychomotor function was tested with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to track task performance 45 minutes after smoking THC in the same subjects. These concentrations are considered to be low and, yet, have detrimental effects on driving-related tasks as established by Ramaekers et al. Ramaekers et al also found that when chronic cannabis smokers abstained from use, CTT results and divided attention performance improved.
However, impairment was still found 3 weeks after abstinence. In an article that discusses the California Compassionate Use Act CUA , there is a section describing the inherent dangers to public safety resulting from drugged-driving. California law prohibits driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs, and as a matter of law, a person authorized to use alcohol or a drug does not normally constitute a defense to a violation The dilemma of THC-impaired driving is extremely important to consider in the treatment of patients younger than 21 years of age because they have the most elevated risk of MVA fatality.
The effect of THC on preadolescents and adolescents is not just related to psychomotor function, but rather, on overall neurocognitive development and functioning. The American Psychological Association reported a significant decrease in brain function by youths who were heavy cannabis users when using a lower dose than is legalized currently.
She asked that they consider the effects from psychoactive chemicals found in marijuana and its long-term impact on neurocognitive function, such as anxiety, depression, and psychosis. In reviewing the actions of cannabis in humans, Webb et al 20 noted that there are multiple psychological effects including:.
Heavy users may have increased difficulty sustaining attention, shifting attention to meet the demands of changes in the environment, and then registering, processing, and using information. Some of the most common secondary adverse effects of long-term medical marijuana use include respiratory distress, depression and anxiety, gastrointestinal complaints, and CNS disorders.
In conjunction with cardiovascular effects, clinicians face the challenges of altered perception, mental status changes and the occasional dysphoria, hallucinations, and delusions associated with marijuana use in patients who may already have emotional disorders.
Mixing cannabis and alcohol increases the risk to the user and the public. In a population based case-controlled study, Laumon et al reviewed the issue of cannabis intoxication and fatal road crashes in France between October and September Studies that assessed the risk of marijuana and alcohol causing driving impairment indicated that while both alcohol and marijuana alone impaired driving performance, combined alcohol and marijuana use caused more severe impairment.
Another study by the NHTSA evaluated the effects of alcohol and marijuana use in 16 recreational users in a 4-way crossover-designed study. While the effects of low doses of marijuana and alcohol were minimal, the combination of moderate doses of marijuana and alcohol- impaired driving performance in city traffic situations. In , Henderson et al wrote an article on sex differences in the effects of marijuana on simulated driving performance. It is essential that health care providers write prescriptions for opiates or other CNS depressants for patients in a responsible manner, and with the recognition that our patients often use multiple other prescription medications or over-the-counter OTC substances.
We need to be aware of all concurrent prescribed medications and OTC substances our patients are receiving and take them into account when we consider whether it is safe for such individuals to return to work or driving.
It is our ethical responsibility to protect our patients and the public a large. Allowing our patients or recreational users to use marijuana before working or driving increases the risks for adverse outcomes. Types of Pain Acute Pain. Cancer Pain. Neuropathic Pain. Oral and Maxillofacial Pain. Rheumatologic and Myofascial Pain. Spine Pain. Other Types of Pain.
Addiction Medicine. Complementary Treatments. Interventional Pain Management. Manipulation and Massage. Chronic pain sufferers are using our pain specialist directory to find pain specialists in your area. Register now and get your name in front of these patients! Chronic Pain and Falls. Legal Considerations of Medical Marijuana. Medical Marijuana Dispensed by Pharmacists in Connecticut. My Policy on Marijuana.
Pharmacogenetics and Pain Management. Recommending Medical Marijuana for Pain Conditions. Evidence has shown that cannabis is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, especially when combined with alcohol.
Ben Amar M. Cannaboids in medicine: A review of their therapeutic potential. J Ethnopharmacol. Catlow B, Sanchez-Ramos J. Cannabinoids for the treatment of movement disorders. Curr Treat Options Neurol. Ashton CF. Adverse Effects of cannabis and cannaboids.
Br J Anaesth. Aronoff GM. Questionnaire of substance abuse pain patients. Personal correspondence. Marijuana correlates with use of other illicit drugs in a pain patient population.
Pain Physician. Marijuana use and motor vehicle crashes. Epidemiol Rev. Testing reckless drivers for cocaine and marijuana. N Engl J Med. Marijuana and other drug use among automobile and motorcycle drivers treated at a trauma center.
Accid Anal Prev. Cannabis effects on driving skills. Clin Chem. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend. Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: Limits of impairment. Neurocognitive performance during acute THC intoxication in heavy and occasional cannibis users.
J Psychopharmacol. Commentary: Drugged driving—different spin on an old problem. Ann Emerg Med. Mostaghim C. American Judges Association: ; 44 Court Review Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Fatality Facts: Teenagers.
Cannabis use and cognitive dysfunction
The effects of cannabis are caused by chemical compounds in the cannabis plant , including different cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol THC ,  allow its drug to have various psychological and physiological effects on the human body. Different plants of the genus Cannabis contain different and often unpredictable concentrations of THC and other cannabinoids and hundreds of other molecules that have a pharmacological effect,   so that the final net effect cannot reliably be foreseen. Acute effects while under the influence can sometimes include euphoria. In the United States , medical cannabis research is limited by federal restrictions. The most prevalent psychoactive substances in cannabis are cannabinoids , particularly THC. Cannabinoids usually contain a 1,1'-di-methyl-pyran ring, a variedly derivatized aromatic ring and a variedly unsaturated cyclohexyl ring and their immediate chemical precursors, constituting a family of about 60 bi-cyclic and tri-cyclic compounds.
George Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. This review considers the effects of cannabis on cognitive functioning, in both short and long term. Although the general impression supported by many studies is that cannabis causes cognitive decline, particularly with long-term usage, some research suggests that this may not be the case. Nevertheless, certain specific neuropsychological parameters have been found to be affected. Most commonly and consistently reported are response time, prolongation of word viewing time, basic oculomotor deficit, residual verbal memory and executive functioning.
Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia currently have legalized medical marijuana and 10 states completely have decriminalized the substance. I believe that the use of marijuana in chronic pain patients receiving opioid analgesics, or other controlled substances, puts them, and others, at significant increased risk for adverse outcomes, especially in settings that require complete attention, alertness, and mental acuity. These skills are required while driving and frequently necessary at the workplace. In addition, prescribing medications to patients who use marijuana may put you, the prescriber, and your medical practice at increased risk for lawsuits. However, there is a difference between a therapeutic dose of medicinal marijuana in the form of Marinol and tetrahydrocannabinol THC from smoking marijuana—both in terms of known dosage, potency, and purity.
Effects of cannabis
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Objective Journal of Drug Policy Analysis JDPA publishes peer-reviewed articles related to every aspect of the problems posed by abusable psychoactives, licit and illicit, anywhere in the world. We publish analytic contributions to the public and scholarly conversation about how to deal with the issues surrounding drug policy. Contributions may be data-driven or conceptual, and may incorporate any of the methods of the social and biological sciences, of the professions of medicine, public health, law, law enforcement, and public management, or of the humanities.
Given healthy aging and cannabis use are both associated with cognitive decline, it is important to establish the effects of cannabis on cognition in healthy aging. This systematic scoping review used preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines to critically examine the extent of literature on this topic and highlight areas for future research.