Management As An Art And Science Pdf

management as an art and science pdf

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Management as an Art

One of the enduring questions in the field of management is whether it is an art or a science. Webster's College Dictionary defines an art as "skill in conducting any human activity" and science as "any skill or technique that reflects a precise application of facts or a principle. Thus, management as a science would indicate that in practice, managers use a specific body of information and facts to guide their behaviors, but that management as an art requires no specific body of knowledge, only skill. Conversely, those who believe management is an art are likely to believe that there is no specific way to teach or understand management, and that it is a skill borne of personality and ability. Those who believe in management as an art are likely to believe that certain people are more predisposed to be effective managers than are others, and that some people cannot be taught to be effective managers.

Some authors regard management as science because there are well tested and experimented principles of management, some authors describe management as an art because more practice is required in management and some authors consider that management is going towards the paths of profession. Image Courtesy : eurochem. To conclude whether management is science, art or profession, we must understand the features and meanings of science, art and profession and compare them with management meaning and features. Science can be defined as a systematic and organised body of knowledge based on logically observed findings, facts and events. Science comprises of exact principles which can be verified and it can establish cause and effect relations. In science organised and systematic study material is available which is used to acquire the knowledge of science.

A science can be referred to as knowledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove. This can be done through experiments. Hence, predictions can be made from such experiments. ART on the other hand can be seen as a skillful way of doing things. Management as an art deals with the application of skills in the process of getting things done through people and available resources. On the other hand, as a science it deals with making decisions and implementing them based on the gathering of past and present data, analysing them and the correlation of such data in order to predict future occurrence. To buttress my point, in the modern world, the budgets of various countries and organizations are made through the use of existing data which is one of the duties attached to management.

Assignment Point - Solution for Best Assignment Paper

Management is considered as art and science. The art of managing begins where Science of managing stops to make management complete. Like any other practice-whether engineering, accountancy, law or medicine; Management is an art. The artistic application of management know-how is evident. It is understood that managing is doing things artistically in light of the realities of a situation. But a modern manager can do better by using the knowledge, methods, concepts, theories, etc.

Management: Management as a Science, Arts and Profession

Everything you need to know about the nature of management. It is hard to define the nature of management. Different people look at management differently.

Much of the controversy around management being art or science is based on description of the fact that the earlier leaders of industry used intuition, hunches, common sense and experience in managing organisations. They were not well-educated, they were not trained professional managers, but they managed their businesses brilliantly. However, common sense and science differ considerably in solving the problems. In , GD Birla was in no better position. He had fought hard with his family and the colonial establishment to start a jute mill.

Nature of Management

The study of public management ought not to attempt to imitate—as do many disciplines in the social sciences—the research paradigm of the natural sciences.


Yvon B.


An art may be defined as personalized application of general theoretical principles for achieving best possible results.

Diane F.


PDF | Covering the major management disciplines, Introducing Management in a Global Context provides an introductory overview of key topic.