File Name: glycolysis krebs cycle and electron transport chain .zip
- Cellular Respiration
- Krebs cycle importance
- Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolites control physiology and disease
Krebs cycle importance
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The differences between reduction and There is also a handy acronym at the end that helps students to remember the four stages of glycolysis. Key stage: KS 3. The anaerobic process of splitting glucose I. Don't hesitate to ask any questions either in class or through this forum. It is broken down to form two three-carbon molecules of pyruvate. The process illustrate above is called glycolysis.
You have just read about two pathways in cellular respiration—glycolysis and the citric acid cycle—that generate ATP. However, most of the ATP generated during the aerobic catabolism of glucose is not generated directly from these pathways. Rather, it is derived from a process that begins with moving electrons through a series of electron transporters that undergo redox reactions: the electron transport chain. This causes hydrogen ions to accumulate within the matrix space. Therefore, a concentration gradient forms in which hydrogen ions diffuse out of the matrix space by passing through ATP synthase.
Life is possible only if molecules and cells remain organized. Organization requires energy, as governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Just about anything a living organism does requires energy. We most often think of energy as food or calories. Cells, however, think of energy as ATP. Cellular respiration is the process of taking the food we eat like sugar and converting it into an energy that can be used by cells - ATP.
Mitochondrial TCA cycle metabolites control physiology and disease
In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis are transported into mitochondria, which are sites of cellular respiration. If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In mitochondria, pyruvate will be transformed into a two-carbon acetyl group by removing a molecule of carbon dioxide that will be picked up by a carrier compound called coenzyme A CoA , which is made from vitamin B 5. The resulting compound is called acetyl CoA. Figure 4.
In eukaryotes , this takes place inside mitochondria. Almost all aerobic organisms carry out oxidative phosphorylation. This pathway is so pervasive because it releases more energy than alternative fermentation processes such as anaerobic glycolysis. The energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose , ultimately derived from food, is released by the cell in the citric acid cycle producing carbon dioxide, and the energetic electron donors NADH and FADH. Oxidative phosphorylation uses these molecules to produce ATP , which is used throughout the cell when ever energy is needed. During oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from the electron donors to a series of electron acceptors in a series of redox reactions ending in oxygen as the last acceptor. In eukaryotes , these redox reactions are catalyzed by a series of protein complexes within the inner membrane of the cell's mitochondria, whereas, in prokaryotes , these proteins are located in the cell's outer membrane.
The Krebs cycle is the second of three stages of cellular respiration, in which glucose, fatty acids and certain amino acids, the so-called fuel molecules , are oxidized see Figure. The oxidation of these molecules is primarily used to transform the energy contained in these molecules into ATP. ATP provides for example energy for muscle contractions and can therefore be referred to as "energy currency" of the cells. Before the fuel molecules can be inserted in the Krebs Cycle, they must first all be converted into acetyl-CoA. Looking at the path of a nutrient, such as glucose, the oxidation of the molecule takes place in the glycolysis.
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