Oil And Gas Well Completion Pdf

oil and gas well completion pdf

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An investigation was initiated into the mechanics of gas-well perforating because of a number of cases of drastic increases in productivity of gas wells after reperforating the same interval. Since these reperforations were with gas at low pressure in the wellbore, a test series was set up in a flow laboratory to investigate the factors involved.

Completion (oil and gas wells)

It involves running production tubing and downhole tools e. It also involves perforating and stimulating the well, commonly known as the frac. It can also include acidizing and nitrogen circulation as needed. In the early phases of oil exploration and production, companies targeted large pools of oil in highly permeable rock. In the lower 48 states of the US and Canada, those pools of oil have been largely tapped. When companies were targeting pooled oil, the greatest determinant of success was finding oil.

However, in the age of tight oil, the locations of shale are well known. There are certainly significant differences between various shale basins and grades along those basins, where geology plays an important role.

Just like auto manufacturing, the shift to a well manufacturing model drives massive productivity gains, enabling far more cost-effective extraction of hydrocarbons. Where this analogy fails is that oil wells have far more variability because of the variability of their geology.

Think of it as stamping out largely identical wells, but dynamically tuning the completion e. In order to achieve a manufacturing process in conjunction with well-specific optimization, we will see an increasing emphasis on well completion. We will see an increased emphasis on capturing and blending well data, operational data and lithology using big data and machine learning tools, to optimize completion on-the-fly.

Well completion is a series of steps—depending upon the completion method—performed after the drilling and casing phase, that enable to well to produce hydrocarbons. Well completion is a phase of the well lifecycle between drilling and production; essentially preparing a drilled and cased well for production. Well Preparation : This step is analogous to the rig up phase of drilling. Various elements of the frac are assembled: sand, fluids, blenders, pumps, chemicals, data van, etc.

This is also the step where the well is flushed with a mix of water and acid to clean out the well in preparation for the frac. Stimulation : Also known as hydraulic fracturing or the frac industry insiders or frack general public. Using methods such as plug and perf, the various stages are isolated so that service providers can perforate and frac the well, one stage at a time.

The frac involves pumping down a perforation gun to create holes in the casing to interface with the surrounding rock. Then a combination of fluid water mixed with surfactants, etc. The water cracks or fractures the surrounding rock. Rock fractures typically extend feet from the wellbore, with the longest recorded fracture being less than meters. Stage counts have been increasing lately, with wells often having stages now.

Drill-out : This is the removal of any material used to isolate stages during the frac process, often done using a coiled tubing drill-out method. In a plug-and-perf method of stimulation, a service provider drills through the plug that was used to isolate the various stages. Some operators use a dissolvable plug, but at this time, it appears that the drill-out method remains most popular. Flowback or Put Online : This is the process of bringing the well to production.

It may also include shutting in or soaking the well, which some believe increases production and EUR estimated ultimate recovery , or lifetime production of the well. Materials Management during the completion process involves the timely purchasing, delivery and storage of all materials required for the completion process, or more specifically for the frac process.

Most materials are simply ordered and delivered on time. As a result of longer laterals and growing stage counts, wells are consuming more proppant and fluid water. Proppant : As stage counts have grown, the amount of proppant, typically sand, has increased as well. Increases in pump pressure, and more perforations per lateral foot, mean more and longer fractures. This increases the amount of proppant required per well.

In areas such as the Permian Basin, two factors—high drilling intensity and increased proppant per well—combine to create cost and sourcing challenges for proppants. Not only is sourcing challenging, and expensive, but trucking logistics can also be difficult. Fluids : Frac fluid requirements are also impacted by increases in the pumping pressures and the number of stages per well.

This increases the demand for frac fluid. Unlike sand, which is easily stored onsite, frac fluids have limited onsite storage in frac ponds. These ponds must be continuously replenished from wells, ponds, rivers and lakes.

In addition, companies are increasingly treating and reusing the brackish water from producing wells. Frac fluid management—which involves sourcing water, scheduling recycled fluids that cannot be stored in frac ponds, and moving water between ponds as needed, and scheduling the wells that consume the fluids—can be a very tricky process to manage.

Completion engineers must also stay abreast of the latest developments in technique, materials and technology. This can be accomplished by socializing with services providers who work on other operators wells, data sharing with other operators where the company may have a NonOp position or a data sharing relationship, talking with vendors, attending seminars and conferences, and socializing with other operators over beers. The completion process description and pump schedule tend to vary little from one well to another.

However, the perf design varies based on various aspects of each well. The first step of perforation design is to define the maximum completable length. This takes into account a number of variables, such as hardlines, buffers, production top, trigger toe information, dogleg severity, and more. Once you have the maximum completable length, and its location on the directional survey, you can start to design your perforations.

Perf design then involves a number of variables such as plug offset, cluster spacing, stages, clusters per stage, stage spacing, perfs per cluster, and more. In this phase, engineers may use a standard model. However, the next phase involves fine-tuning that model based on wireline data collected about the well. The engineer then looks at gamma ray, gas content, lithology and a number of other variables as an overlay to the standard perf plan. Then he fine-tunes various variables to create the perfect perf design for this well.

Once the plan is finalized, he generates a detailed perf plan along with the materials list for perforating the well, such as perf gun requirements. Well completion reporting is the process of collecting and distributing activity, cost, materials, and operational data from the completion process. Groups such as IADC, PPDM, and Energistics have attempted to establish various standards for coding, modeling, formatting and transmitting certain aspects of this data.

Earlier generations of well reporting focused exclusively on delivering a report in paper or PDF format. Second generation solutions add the ability to export completion data to spreadsheets for what-if analysis, creating key metrics and loading into data visualization packages like Spotfire.

The newest generation of reporting software leverages a database management system DBMS that can produce reports and spreadsheet export, while adding the ability to store far more data, query, filter and manipulate the data, and also enable data sharing between various departments inside the operator, as well as NonOps and data sharing partners. For more insight on this topic, see the Spreadsheet vs.

Database article. During the well completion process, the wellsite manager typically tracks activities and costs in a daily completion report and cost report respectively. This also rolls into a completion summary report.

These reports serve a variety of valuable functions as described below:. Understanding the progress, problems, and productivity of the team. Awareness of the efficiency of the service providers As a tool for evaluating your field operations and service providers Understanding the cause of any delays, cost overruns, and problems Sharing the reports with NonOp partners Establishing the value of the asset, when selling it Post sale, providing the buyer with the information he needs to optimize new wells and to maintain existing wells For workover crews to understand what is downhole, prior to working on it Providing information to the various regulatory agencies As background material for capital-raising efforts Completion reporting is one aspect of the completion data flow.

It starts with ingesting the drilling data, so that you can tune the completion accordingly. The next aspect is the completion design process, and the data it generates. Then comes the reporting process and the data it generates. After this comes the data sharing with NonOps and data sharing partners. Finally you have the post job data analysis, where you generate key metrics, comparisons, data visualization and more, enabling you to assess the efficiency of the processes and methods, which is used to optimize future wells.

Then the data is handed to the production team, so that they can optimize maintenance and production of the well. Well Completion Optimization Well completion optimization is the analysis of completion data, in order to improve well productivity, while reducing well costs.

At the same time they learn from others what has worked in similar geologies. The combination of various stepwise advances has resulted in very impressive cumulative advances in efficiency. Well completion optimization is a data driven process that requires the following:. Data Quality : The old adage garbage-in, garbage-out applies here. If your data is incorrect, your results will be incorrect.

Software tools, internal processes and solid data quality control are required to ensure that you start with high-quality data.

Data Depth : This essentially refers to how much data you collect. You will want to blend operational data e. All of this can be used in what-if scenarios, data visualization and dashboarding, and machine learning to fuel optimization.

The more wells you have, the more statistically relevant the results. You also need variability between wells. If every well is the exact same, you can have 1, wells in the system and learn nothing. However, a high degree of variability between wells enables you to learn what factors improve well results. This is analogous to the favorable adaptation in evolution. If nothing changes, there is no way to learn how changes can affect results, so there is no optimization.

Data variability, or diversity, is critical to fuel well completion optimization. However, this data must also be high-quality and have sufficient depth. Public data can help with breadth—including many wells—but is woefully inadequate in terms of data depth. Public data can also suffer from intentional obfuscation by operators in their reporting.

For example wells might have multiple laterals, sidetracks, etc. This can result in erroneous insights. Erroneous results are more problematic than no results at all, since they send you in the wrong direction. Shared with NonOps under standard JOA agreements Under data sharing agreements bi-directional Shared with the owners of mineral rights Shared with investors, e.

Well Completion

I George King. Copyright by George E. King Document may not be copied in any manner. George E. King S.

It involves running production tubing and downhole tools e. It also involves perforating and stimulating the well, commonly known as the frac. It can also include acidizing and nitrogen circulation as needed. In the early phases of oil exploration and production, companies targeted large pools of oil in highly permeable rock. In the lower 48 states of the US and Canada, those pools of oil have been largely tapped. When companies were targeting pooled oil, the greatest determinant of success was finding oil.

Harper, G. The use of this extra string provides an annular space which can be employed to perform a number of functions. The Union Oil Co. In view of the economics, further consideration should be given to concentrically completing dual oil wells before deciding to incur the extra expense of larger hole, larger casing sizes and two strings of tubing required for parallel duals. Particularly this is true where past history of the two zones is available.


PDF | Drilling and completion techniques in petroleum industries have advanced significantly over the last few decades to improve the recovery.


An Introduction to the Basic of Well Completions.pdf

Well completion is the process of making a well ready for production or injection after drilling operations. This principally involves preparing the bottom of the hole to the required specifications, running in the production tubing and its associated down hole tools as well as perforating and stimulating as required. Sometimes, the process of running in and cementing the casing is also included.

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Well Completion: Materials Management

Удаляясь от таких надежных ступенек, Сьюзан вспомнила, как в детстве играла в салки поздно ночью, и почувствовала себя одинокой и беззащитной, ТРАНСТЕКСТ был единственным островом в открытом черном море. Через каждые несколько шагов Стратмор останавливался, держа пистолет наготове, и прислушивался. Единственным звуком, достигавшим его ушей, был едва уловимый гул, шедший снизу. Сьюзан хотелось потянуть шефа назад, в безопасность его кабинета. В кромешной тьме вокруг ей виделись чьи-то лица. На полпути к ТРАНСТЕКСТУ тишина шифровалки нарушилась.

Бросила взгляд на монитор, потом посмотрела на Грега Хейла.  - Сейчас. Несколькими быстрыми нажатиями клавиш она вызвала программу, именуемую Экранный замок, которая давала возможность скрыть работу от посторонних глаз. Она была установлена на каждом терминале в Третьем узле. Поскольку компьютеры находились во включенном состоянии круглые сутки, замок позволял криптографам покидать рабочее место, зная, что никто не будет рыться в их файлах.

Well Completion Design - Jonathan Bellarby

Парень крупного сложения и прильнувшая к нему сзади девушка въехали на стоянку на стареньком мотоцикле Веспа-250.

Особенно таких, как Хейл, - зеленых и наивных. Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство. - Грег, - сказала она, и голос ее зазвучал мягче, хотя далось ей это нелегко.

 Да нет, - замялся.  - Я просто… - Сьюзан Флетчер.  - Женщина улыбнулась и протянула ему тонкую изящную руку. - Дэвид Беккер.

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PDF | On Feb 11, , Abdullah Taha and others published Introduction to Smart Oil and Gas Wells: Drilling, Completion and Monitoring.

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In short, well completion simply means deeming the well a commercially viable operation, then preparing the well for production.

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