Software Testing Principles Techniques And Tools B Y Limaye Tmh Pdf

software testing principles techniques and tools b y limaye tmh pdf

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Using an easily-learned risk-analysis technique, it teaches you how to use risk to select and prioritize test methods for e-business projects.

Software testing

Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test. Test techniques include the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding failures, [2] : 31 and verifying that the software product is fit for use.

Software testing involves the execution of a software component or system component to evaluate one or more properties of interest. In general, these properties indicate the extent to which the component or system under test:. As the number of possible tests for even simple software components is practically infinite, all software testing uses some strategy to select tests that are feasible for the available time and resources. As a result, software testing typically but not exclusively attempts to execute a program or application with the intent of finding failures [2] : 31 due to software faults.

Software testing can provide objective, independent information about the quality of software and risk of its failure to users or sponsors. Software testing can be conducted as soon as executable software even if partially complete exists. The overall approach to software development often determines when and how testing is conducted.

For example, in a phased process, most testing occurs after system requirements have been defined and then implemented in testable programs. In contrast, under an agile approach , requirements, programming, and testing are often done concurrently. Although software testing can determine the correctness of software under the assumption of some specific hypotheses see the hierarchy of testing difficulty below , testing cannot identify all the failures within the software.

These oracles may include but are not limited to specifications, contracts , [4] comparable products, past versions of the same product, inferences about intended or expected purpose, user or customer expectations, relevant standards, applicable laws, or other criteria.

A primary purpose of testing is to detect software failures so that defects may be discovered and corrected. Testing cannot establish that a product functions properly under all conditions, but only that it does not function properly under specific conditions. In the current culture of software development, a testing organization may be separate from the development team. There are various roles for testing team members.

Information derived from software testing may be used to correct the process by which software is developed. Every software product has a target audience. For example, the audience for video game software is completely different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it can assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users , its target audience, its purchasers, and other stakeholders. Software testing assists in making this assessment.

Software faults occur through the following process: A programmer makes an error mistake , which results in a fault defect, bug in the software source code. If this fault is executed, in certain situations the system will produce wrong results, causing a failure. Not all faults will necessarily result in failures.

For example, faults in the dead code will never result in failures. A fault that did not reveal failures may result in a failure when the environment is changed. Examples of these changes in environment include the software being run on a new computer hardware platform, alterations in source data , or interacting with different software.

Not all software faults are caused by coding errors. One common source of expensive defects is requirement gaps, i. A fundamental problem with software testing is that testing under all combinations of inputs and preconditions initial state is not feasible, even with a simple product. More significantly, non-functional dimensions of quality how it is supposed to be versus what it is supposed to do — usability , scalability , performance , compatibility , and reliability — can be highly subjective; something that constitutes sufficient value to one person may be intolerable to another.

Software developers can't test everything, but they can use combinatorial test design to identify the minimum number of tests needed to get the coverage they want. Combinatorial test design enables users to get greater test coverage with fewer tests. Whether they are looking for speed or test depth, they can use combinatorial test design methods to build structured variation into their test cases.

More than a third of this cost could be avoided, if better software testing was performed. Outsourcing software testing because of costs is very common, with China, the Philippines, and India being preferred destinations. Software testing can be done by dedicated software testers; until the s, the term "software tester" was used generally, but later it was also seen as a separate profession. Regarding the periods and the different goals in software testing, [12] different roles have been established, such as test manager , test lead , test analyst , test designer , tester , automation developer , and test administrator.

Software testing can also be performed by non-dedicated software testers. Glenford J. Myers initially introduced the separation of debugging from testing in There are many approaches available in software testing. Reviews , walkthroughs , or inspections are referred to as static testing, whereas executing programmed code with a given set of test cases is referred to as dynamic testing. Dynamic testing takes place when the program itself is run.

Static testing involves verification , whereas dynamic testing also involves validation. Passive testing means verifying the system behavior without any interaction with the software product. Contrary to active testing, testers do not provide any test data but look at system logs and traces.

They mine for patterns and specific behavior in order to make some kind of decisions. Exploratory testing is an approach to software testing that is concisely described as simultaneous learning, test design , and test execution.

Software testing methods are traditionally divided into white- and black-box testing. These two approaches are used to describe the point of view that the tester takes when designing test cases.

A hybrid approach called grey-box testing may also be applied to software testing methodology. White-box testing also known as clear box testing, glass box testing, transparent box testing, and structural testing verifies the internal structures or workings of a program, as opposed to the functionality exposed to the end-user.

In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system the source code , as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. The tester chooses inputs to exercise paths through the code and determine the appropriate outputs.

While white-box testing can be applied at the unit , integration , and system levels of the software testing process, it is usually done at the unit level.

Though this method of test design can uncover many errors or problems, it might not detect unimplemented parts of the specification or missing requirements.

Techniques used in white-box testing include: [20] [22]. Code coverage tools can evaluate the completeness of a test suite that was created with any method, including black-box testing. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function points have been tested.

This is helpful in ensuring correct functionality, but not sufficient since the same code may process different inputs correctly or incorrectly. Black-box testing also known as functional testing treats the software as a "black box," examining functionality without any knowledge of internal implementation, without seeing the source code. The testers are only aware of what the software is supposed to do, not how it does it.

Specification-based testing aims to test the functionality of software according to the applicable requirements. Test cases are built around specifications and requirements, i. It uses external descriptions of the software, including specifications, requirements, and designs to derive test cases.

These tests can be functional or non-functional , though usually functional. Specification-based testing may be necessary to assure correct functionality, but it is insufficient to guard against complex or high-risk situations. One advantage of the black box technique is that no programming knowledge is required.

Whatever biases the programmers may have had, the tester likely has a different set and may emphasize different areas of functionality. On the other hand, black-box testing has been said to be "like a walk in a dark labyrinth without a flashlight.

This method of test can be applied to all levels of software testing: unit , integration , system and acceptance. Component interface testing is a variation of black-box testing , with the focus on the data values beyond just the related actions of a subsystem component.

One option for interface testing is to keep a separate log file of data items being passed, often with a timestamp logged to allow analysis of thousands of cases of data passed between units for days or weeks. Tests can include checking the handling of some extreme data values while other interface variables are passed as normal values.

The aim of visual testing is to provide developers with the ability to examine what was happening at the point of software failure by presenting the data in such a way that the developer can easily find the information she or he requires, and the information is expressed clearly.

At the core of visual testing is the idea that showing someone a problem or a test failure , rather than just describing it, greatly increases clarity and understanding. Visual testing, therefore, requires the recording of the entire test process — capturing everything that occurs on the test system in video format. Output videos are supplemented by real-time tester input via picture-in-a-picture webcam and audio commentary from microphones.

Visual testing provides a number of advantages. The quality of communication is increased drastically because testers can show the problem and the events leading up to it to the developer as opposed to just describing it and the need to replicate test failures will cease to exist in many cases.

The developer will have all the evidence she or he requires of a test failure and can instead focus on the cause of the fault and how it should be fixed. Ad hoc testing and exploratory testing are important methodologies for checking software integrity, because they require less preparation time to implement, while the important bugs can be found quickly. Grey-box testing American spelling: gray-box testing involves having knowledge of internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing tests while executing those tests at the user, or black-box level.

The tester will often have access to both "the source code and the executable binary. This distinction is particularly important when conducting integration testing between two modules of code written by two different developers, where only the interfaces are exposed for the test.

By knowing the underlying concepts of how the software works, the tester makes better-informed testing choices while testing the software from outside. Typically, a grey-box tester will be permitted to set up an isolated testing environment with activities such as seeding a database. The tester can observe the state of the product being tested after performing certain actions such as executing SQL statements against the database and then executing queries to ensure that the expected changes have been reflected.

Grey-box testing implements intelligent test scenarios, based on limited information. This will particularly apply to data type handling, exception handling , and so on. Broadly speaking, there are at least three levels of testing: unit testing, integration testing, and system testing. This may be in the form of operational acceptance testing or be simple end-user beta testing, testing to ensure the software meets functional expectations.

Unit testing refers to tests that verify the functionality of a specific section of code, usually at the function level. In an object-oriented environment, this is usually at the class level, and the minimal unit tests include the constructors and destructors.

These types of tests are usually written by developers as they work on code white-box style , to ensure that the specific function is working as expected. One function might have multiple tests, to catch corner cases or other branches in the code. Unit testing alone cannot verify the functionality of a piece of software, but rather is used to ensure that the building blocks of the software work independently from each other.


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Black-box testing is a method of software testing that examines the functionality of an application without peering into its internal structures or workings. This method of test can be applied virtually to every level of software testing: unit , integration , system and acceptance.


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Regression testing: Progressives Vs regressive testing, Regression testability, Objectives of regression testing, When regression testing done? Testing Object Oriented Software: basics, Object oriented testing Testing Web based Systems: Challenges in testing for web based software, quality aspects, web engineering, testing of web based systems, Testing mobile systems. Text Books: 1. References: 1. Software testing techniques - Baris Beizer, International Thomson computer press, second edition. Open navigation menu.

Regression testing: Progressives Vs regressive testing, Regression testability, Objectives of regression testing, When regression testing done? Testing Object Oriented Software: basics, Object oriented testing Testing Web based Systems: Challenges in testing for web based software, quality aspects, web engineering, testing of web based systems, Testing mobile systems. Text Books: 1. References: 1. Software testing techniques - Baris Beizer, International Thomson computer press, second edition. Open navigation menu.

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Software testing is an investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the software product or service under test.