File Name: research methodology theory and techniques .zip
Research Methods: The Basics is an accessible, user-friendly introduction to the different aspects of research theory, methods and practice. Structured in two parts, the first covering the nature
- Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers
- Research Design and Methodology
Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis.
Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis. While grounded theory is inherently flexible, it is a complex methodology. Thus, novice researchers strive to understand the discourse and the practical application of grounded theory concepts and processes.
The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary research framework suitable to inform a grounded theory study. This article provides an overview of grounded theory illustrated through a graphic representation of the processes and methods employed in conducting research using this methodology. The framework is presented as a diagrammatic representation of a research design and acts as a visual guide for the novice grounded theory researcher.
As grounded theory is not a linear process, the framework illustrates the interplay between the essential grounded theory methods and iterative and comparative actions involved. Each of the essential methods and processes that underpin grounded theory are defined in this article. Rather than an engagement in philosophical discussion or a debate of the different genres that can be used in grounded theory, this article illustrates how a framework for a research study design can be used to guide and inform the novice nurse researcher undertaking a study using grounded theory.
Research findings and recommendations can contribute to policy or knowledge development, service provision and can reform thinking to initiate change in the substantive area of inquiry. Researchers reflect their philosophical beliefs and interpretations of the world prior to commencing research.
Methodology is the research design that shapes the selection of, and use of, particular data generation and analysis methods to answer the research question. This methodology is appropriate when little is known about a phenomenon; the aim being to produce or construct an explanatory theory that uncovers a process inherent to the substantive area of inquiry. The following section provides an overview of GT — the history, main genres and essential methods and processes employed in the conduct of a GT study.
This summary provides a foundation for a framework to demonstrate the interplay between the methods and processes inherent in a GT study as presented in the sections that follow. Glaser and Strauss are recognised as the founders of grounded theory. Strauss was conversant in symbolic interactionism and Glaser in descriptive statistics. Some of these suspected they were dying and tried to confirm or disconfirm their suspicions.
Others tried to understand by interpreting treatment by care providers and family members. Glaser and Strauss examined how the patients dealt with the knowledge they were dying and the reactions of healthcare staff caring for these patients.
Throughout this collaboration, Glaser and Strauss questioned the appropriateness of using a scientific method of verification for this study. During this investigation, they developed the constant comparative method, a key element of grounded theory, while generating a theory of dying first described in Awareness of Dying The constant comparative method is deemed an original way of organising and analysing qualitative data. This seminal work explained how theory could be generated from data inductively.
This process challenged the traditional method of testing or refining theory through deductive testing. Grounded theory provided an outlook that questioned the view of the time that quantitative methodology is the only valid, unbiased way to determine truths about the world.
After publishing The Discovery of Grounded Theory , Strauss and Glaser went on to write independently, expressing divergent viewpoints in the application of grounded theory methods. However, understanding how to position oneself philosophically can challenge novice researchers. These Australian researchers have written in a way that appeals to the novice researcher. It is the contemporary writing, the way Birks and Mills present a non-partisan approach to GT that support the novice researcher to understand the philosophical and methodological concepts integral in conducting research.
As the research progresses, seminal texts are referred back to time and again as understanding of concepts increases, much like the iterative processes inherent in the conduct of a GT study. The first of these genres is known as traditional or classic GT. Glaser 18 acknowledged that the goal of traditional GT is to generate a conceptual theory that accounts for a pattern of behaviour that is relevant and problematic for those involved.
The second genre, evolved GT, is founded on symbolic interactionism and stems from work associated with Strauss, Corbin and Clarke. Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective that relies on the symbolic meaning people ascribe to the processes of social interaction. Symbolic interactionism addresses the subjective meaning people place on objects, behaviours or events based on what they believe is true. Following on from Glaser and Strauss, several versions of GT have ensued.
Grounded theory represents both a method of inquiry and a resultant product of that inquiry. However, Birks and Mills 6 refer to GT as a process by which theory is generated from the analysis of data. Theory is not discovered; rather, theory is constructed by the researcher who views the world through their own particular lens. Before commencing any research study, the researcher must have a solid understanding of the research process. A well-developed outline of the study and an understanding of the important considerations in designing and undertaking a GT study are essential if the goals of the research are to be achieved.
While it is important to have an understanding of how a methodology has developed, in order to move forward with research, a novice can align with a grounded theorist and follow an approach to GT. Using a framework to inform a research design can be a useful modus operandi. The following section provides insight into the process of undertaking a GT research study.
Figure 1 is a framework that summarises the interplay and movement between methods and processes that underpin the generation of a GT.
As can be seen from this framework, and as detailed in the discussion that follows, the process of doing a GT research study is not linear, rather it is iterative and recursive. Research design framework: summary of the interplay between the essential grounded theory methods and processes. Grounded theory research involves the meticulous application of specific methods and processes.
Theoretical sampling is employed until theoretical saturation is reached. These methods and processes create an unfolding, iterative system of actions and interactions inherent in GT. The framework denotes the process is both iterative and dynamic and is not one directional. Grounded theory methods are discussed in the following section.
Purposeful sampling provides the initial data that the researcher analyses. As will be discussed, theoretical sampling then commences from the codes and categories developed from the first data set.
Theoretical sampling is used to identify and follow clues from the analysis, fill gaps, clarify uncertainties, check hunches and test interpretations as the study progresses. Constant comparative analysis is an analytical process used in GT for coding and category development. This process commences with the first data generated or collected and pervades the research process as presented in Figure 1.
Incidents are identified in the data and coded. Initial codes are then compared to other codes. Codes are then collapsed into categories. This process means the researcher will compare incidents in a category with previous incidents, in both the same and different categories. New data is then compared with data obtained earlier during the analysis phases. This iterative process involves inductive and deductive thinking. Constant comparative analysis generates increasingly more abstract concepts and theories through inductive processes.
The constant comparative technique is used to find consistencies and differences, with the aim of continually refining concepts and theoretically relevant categories. This continual comparative iterative process that encompasses GT research sets it apart from a purely descriptive analysis.
Memos are the storehouse of ideas generated and documented through interacting with data. Lempert 29 considers memo writing crucial as memos prompt researchers to analyse and code data and develop codes into categories early in the coding process.
Memos detail why and how decisions made related to sampling, coding, collapsing of codes, making of new codes, separating codes, producing a category and identifying relationships abstracted to a higher level of analysis. The relationship the researcher has with the data, how it is generated and collected, will determine the value it contributes to the development of the final GT. Coding is an analytical process used to identify concepts, similarities and conceptual reoccurrences in data.
Coding is the pivotal link between collecting or generating data and developing a theory that explains the data. Charmaz 10 posits,. Codes consist of short labels that we construct as we interact with the data.
Something kinaesthetic occurs when we are coding; we are mentally and physically active in the process. In GT, coding can be categorised into iterative phases. Traditional, evolved and constructivist GT genres use different terminology to explain each coding phase Table 1. Comparison of coding terminology in traditional, evolved and constructivist grounded theory.
Adapted from Birks and Mills. Coding terminology in evolved GT refers to open a procedure for developing categories of information , axial an advanced procedure for interconnecting the categories and selective coding procedure for building a storyline from core codes that connects the categories , producing a discursive set of theoretical propositions.
The coding terms devised by Birks and Mills 6 were used for Figure 1 ; however, these can be altered to reflect the coding terminology used in the respective GT genres selected by the researcher. Initial coding of data is the preliminary step in GT data analysis.
In initial coding, the researcher inductively generates as many codes as possible from early data. In GT, codes identify social and psychological processes and actions as opposed to themes. Charmaz 16 emphasises keeping codes as similar to the data as possible and advocates embedding actions in the codes in an iterative coding process. Initial coding categorises and assigns meaning to the data, comparing incident-to-incident, labelling beginning patterns and beginning to look for comparisons between the codes.
The process of documenting reactions, emotions and related actions enables researchers to explore, challenge and intensify their sensitivity to the data. The purpose of theoretical sampling is to allow the researcher to follow leads in the data by sampling new participants or material that provides relevant information.
As depicted in Figure 1 , theoretical sampling is central to GT design, aids the evolving theory 5 , 7 , 16 and ensures the final developed theory is grounded in the data. During this process, additional information is sought to saturate categories under development.
The analysis identifies relationships, highlights gaps in the existing data set and may reveal insight into what is not yet known. The exemplars in Box 1 highlight how theoretical sampling led to the inclusion of further data. Thus, theoretical sampling is used to focus and generate data to feed the iterative process of continual comparative analysis of the data.
Intermediate coding, identifying a core category, theoretical data saturation, constant comparative analysis, theoretical sensitivity and memoing occur in the next phase of the GT process. Where initial coding fractures the data, intermediate coding begins to transform basic data into more abstract concepts allowing the theory to emerge from the data. During this analytic stage, a process of reviewing categories and identifying which ones, if any, can be subsumed beneath other categories occurs and the properties or dimension of the developed categories are refined.
Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers
People who take part in research involving experiments might be asked to complete various tests to measure their cognitive abilities e. The results of different groups are then compared. Participants should not be anxious about performing well but simply do their best. The aim of these tests is not to judge people or measure so-called intelligence, but to look for links between performance and other factors. If computers are used, this has to be done in such a way that no previous knowledge of computers is necessary. So people should not be put off by this either.
Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. The methodology section answers two main questions: How was the data collected or generated? How was it analyzed? It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Research Design and Methodology
A non-invasive method of detecting carbon in soil: comparison with soil cores and excavations. Article No. Various techniques are used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction, crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant, complexation, and so forth. The research design is applied so that suitable research methods are used to ensure the attainment of the goals and objectives set out in Chapter One. Hence the reason rationale for a discussion of the research design and methodology: Firstly, this is to provide the plan or blueprint for the research.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This textbook describes and explains the fundamentals of applying empirical methods for theory building and theory testing in marketing research. The authors explain the foundations in philosophy of science and the various methodological approaches to readers who are working empirically with the purpose of developing and testing theories in marketing.
Search This Blog. A few days ago we received an email from one of our readers inquiring about a book we featured in a previous post so we thought it would be good to re-share the visual here for those of you who haven't seen it. This is a collection of some great books on research methodology which I am using in my PhD studies. They are meant to 'introduce you to the intricacies of research methodology and guide you through the process of constructing a research design from the grounds up.
Altshuller and his colleagues. According to TRIZ, universal principles of creativity form the basis of innovation. Delivery Associate will place the order on your doorstep and step back to maintain a 2-meter distance. No customer signatures are required at the time of delivery. Note whether the knowledge relevant to your theoretical framework is..
Suggested answers to selected questions. Find out more, read a sample chapter, or order an inspection copy if you are a lecturer, from the Higher Education website. The debate about the measurement of rape has contributed to several methodological advances. Review this information and then decide which research technique and design best fits the current research question listed below taken from pg. Studying a social science degree? Need to know how to develop your research methods and write up your results more effectively?
PDF | Research methodology is taught as a supporting subject in It uses simple examples to demystify complex theories and methodologies.