Second And Third Conditional Pdf

second and third conditional pdf

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But next time as I promise I will be doing better than what I do today. I will not be forget to give warmly thank to teacher Ronnie, she is very good teacher with her little funny so I like her lesson the most, just keep it up God bless your high excellency to do more, I am from South Sudan but I live Cairo, Egypt. I was not so good at guiz.

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First, Second and Third Conditional Worksheet

Prototypical conditional sentences in English are those of the form "If X, then Y". The clause X is referred to as the antecedent or protasis , while the clause Y is called the consequent or apodosis. A conditional is understood as expressing its consequent under the temporary hypothetical assumption of its antecedent. Conditional sentences can take numerous forms.

The consequent can precede the "if"-clause and the word "if" itself may be omitted or replaced with a different complementizer. The consequent can be a declarative , an interrogative , or an imperative.

Special tense morphology can be used to form a counterfactual conditional. Some linguists have argued that other superficially distinct grammatical structures such as wish reports have the same underlying structure as conditionals.

Conditionals are one of the most widely studied phenomena in formal semantics , and have also been discussed widely in philosophy of language , computer science , decision theory , among other fields. In English conditional sentences, the antecedent protasis is a dependent clause , most commonly introduced by the complementizer if. Other complementizers may also be used, such as whenever , unless , provided that , and as long as.

The consequent clause, expressing the consequence of the stated condition, is generally a main clause. It can be a declarative, interrogative, or imperative clause. As with other dependent clauses in written English, it is common for a comma to be used to separate the clauses if the dependent clause comes first as is done in the above examples. It is possible for the consequence clause to appear alone in a sentence, without a condition clause, if the condition has been previously stated or is understood from the context.

It may also be shortened by verb phrase ellipsis ; a minimal conditional sentence could therefore be something like "Would you? Like other languages, English uses past tense morphology to indicate that the speaker regards the antecedent as impossible or unlikely. This use of past tense is often referred to as fake past since it does not contribute its ordinary temporal meaning.

Conditionals with fake past marking go by various names including counterfactuals , subjunctives , and X-marked conditionals. In older dialects and more formal registers, the form "were" is often used instead of "was". Counterfactuals of this sort are sometimes referred to as were'd up conditionals. The form "were" can also be used with an infinitive to form a future less vivid conditional.

Counterfactuals can also use the pluperfect instead of the past tense. In English language teaching , conditional sentences are often classified under the headings zero conditional , first conditional or conditional I , second conditional or conditional II , third conditional or conditional III and mixed conditional , according to the grammatical pattern followed, particularly in terms of the verb tenses and auxiliaries used.

The first of these sentences is a basic zero conditional with both clauses in the present tense. The fourth is an example of the use of will in a condition clause [4] for more such cases, see below.

The use of verb tenses, moods and aspects in the parts of such sentences follows general principles, as described in Uses of English verb forms. Occasionally, mainly in a formal and somewhat archaic style, a subjunctive is used in the zero-conditional condition clause as in "If the prisoner be held for more than five days, For more details see English subjunctive. In the basic first conditional pattern, the condition is expressed using the present tense having future meaning in this context.

The use of present tense in dependent clauses with future time reference is not confined to condition clauses; it also occurs in various temporal and relative clauses as soon as he arrives ; take the first train that comes ; etc.

The present tense used in the condition clause may take the form of the simple present as in the above examples, or the present progressive , present perfect or present perfect progressive as appropriate according to general principles for uses of English verb forms :. The condition can also be expressed using the modal verb should. This form can be used to make an inverted condition clause without a conjunction:. Otherwise, the condition clause in a first conditional pattern is not normally formed with a modal verb , other than can.

For the occasional use of the subjunctive in the condition clause, see under zero conditional above. In colloquial English, an imperative may be used with the meaning of a condition clause, as in "go eastwards a mile and you'll see it" meaning "if you go eastwards a mile, you will see it".

Although the consequence in first conditional sentences is usually expressed using the will or shall future usually the simple future , though future progressive , future perfect and future perfect progressive are used as appropriate , other variations are also possible — it may take the form of an imperative , it may use another modal verb that can have future meaning, or it may be expressed as a deduction about present or past time consequent on a possible future event :.

In this case it is effectively the main clause, rather than the dependent condition clause, that expresses a "condition". As noted in the following section, it may be possible to express a statement about a hypothetical future situation using either the first or second conditional pattern, with little specific difference in meaning.

In the normal form of the second conditional, the condition clause is in the past tense although it does not have past meaning. The past tense simple past or past progressive of the condition clause is historically the past subjunctive.

In modern English this is identical to the past indicative , except in the first and third persons singular of the verb be , where the indicative is was and the subjunctive were ; was is sometimes used as a colloquialism were otherwise preferred , although the phrase if I were you is common in colloquial language.

When were is the verb of the condition clause, it can be used to make an inverted condition clause without a conjunction. Another possible pattern is if it weren't for The conditional construction of the main clause is usually the simple conditional ; sometimes the conditional progressive e. Occasionally, with a first person subject, the auxiliary would is replaced by should similarly to the way will is replaced by shall.

Also, would may be replaced by another appropriate modal : could , should , might. When referring to hypothetical future circumstance, there may be little difference in meaning between the first and second conditional factual vs. The following two sentences have similar meaning, although the second with the second conditional implies less likelihood that the condition will be fulfilled:. Notice that in indirect speech reported in the past tense, the first conditional naturally changes to the second:.

Here the condition clause is in the past perfect , and the consequence is expressed using the conditional perfect. That used, the above examples can be written as such:.

The condition clause can undergo inversion , with omission of the conjunction:. Another possible pattern similar to that mentioned under the second conditional is if it hadn't been for Occasionally, with a first person subject, would is replaced with should. In the main clause, the auxiliary would can be replaced by could or might , as described for the second conditional. If only one of the two clauses has past reference, a mixed conditional pattern see below is used. Here either the condition or the consequence, but not both, has a past time reference.

When the condition refers to the past, but the consequence to the present, the condition clause is in the past perfect as with the third conditional , while the main clause is in the conditional mood as in the second conditional i. When the consequence refers to the past, but the condition is not expressed as being limited to the past, the condition clause is expressed as in the second conditional past, but not past perfect , while the main clause is in the conditional perfect as in the third conditional:.

Other variations on the respective clause patterns are possible, as used accordingly in the second and third conditionals. There is a problem when the condition refers to the present , but the consequence to the future , as in these examples:. Formally, every sentence above looks like the first conditional, with the condition having future meaning, [5] which was not our intention.

Generally, context and auxiliary words like "already", "at present", etc. The word "now" can be interpreted as "at present" or "in the immediate future". Hence, the condition can refer both to the present and future. As noted above regarding the first conditional , will or shall is not normally used to mark future time reference in a condition clause; instead an ordinary present tense is used:. However, there are certain situations where will can appear in a condition clause.

One type of situation is referred to above under zero conditional , where will expresses futurity, but the sentence as a whole expresses factual implication rather than a potential future circumstance: "If aspirins will cure it, I'll take a couple tonight" the taking is not a consequence of the curing, but a consequence of the expectation that they will cure.

More commonly, will appears in condition clauses where it has a modal meaning, rather than marking the future. See uses of will. Relevant meanings include willingness, persistence, or strong disapproval [4] [6] [7].

Similarly, would is not generally used in the condition clauses of the counterfactual patterns second and third conditional in standard English:.

However, some varieties of English regularly use would contracted to 'd and would have ' d have in counterfactual condition clauses, although this is often considered non-standard:. Such use of would is widespread especially in spoken American English in all sectors of society. It is not usually found in more formal writing; however some sources describe it as acceptable US English, no longer labeling it colloquial. There are also cases where would can appear in the condition clause in British English too, but these can be considered to be modal uses of would , indicating willingness:.

Also, in cases where the event of the if -clause follows that of the main clause, use of would in the if -clause is standard usage this is similar to the aspirin example given above for will :. For the use of should in future condition clauses, see under first conditional.

Certain condition clauses if -clauses can be cast without any conjunction such as if or unless , instead using subject—auxiliary inversion to indicate their meaning. Inversion is also possible when the present subjunctive be is used e. For similar examples see English subjunctive. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Plurals Prefixes in English Suffixes frequentative. Word types. Abbreviations Capitalization Comma Hyphen. See also: Counterfactual conditionals.

English conditionals of this sort do not use subjunctive mood. Linguistic Inquiry. Cambridge Dictionary. To stress willingness or wish, you can use "would" or "will" in both clauses of the same sentence: If he would practise more, he would play better. If he will practise more, he will play better. Both mean the same. This is common in spoken American English. Br: The blockades wouldn't happen if the police were firmer with the strikers.

Lesson 6.3 Second Conditional

Second conditional in a nutshell:. For example:. If we hear this phrase we know that advice is going to follow in the main clause. However, there is much more to second conditional, as we will discover. We often use second conditional to express the following functions , among many others:. There is a sense that we are dissatisfied with our present or future situation and try to imagine a different — maybe better — one.

Interactive Version - Here is a first vs. Interactive Version - This interactive conditionals worksheet can be used to help students review the zero, first, second and third conditionals. Interactive Version - In this mixed conditionals interactive worksheet, students complete a variety of exercises to practice or review first, second and third conditionals. Interactive Version - This mixed conditionals interactive PDF contains a range of exercises to help students practice the first, second and third conditionals. Past Simple vs. Present Simple Passive Present Simple vs. Essay Writing Punctuation.

Prototypical conditional sentences in English are those of the form "If X, then Y". The clause X is referred to as the antecedent or protasis , while the clause Y is called the consequent or apodosis. A conditional is understood as expressing its consequent under the temporary hypothetical assumption of its antecedent. Conditional sentences can take numerous forms. The consequent can precede the "if"-clause and the word "if" itself may be omitted or replaced with a different complementizer. The consequent can be a declarative , an interrogative , or an imperative.

The Conditional: Zero, First, Second, Third and Mixed

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Worksheets - pdf exercises

Are you an English teacher? Please download this lesson to use in your English class. If you have any questions, or would like to add anything else, please contact me. If it rains, I stay home. The first example is done for you. If Roscoe is bored, he fishes.


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(Third conditional) If the weather hadn't been so cold, we would have gone to the beach. 4. (Second conditional) If she had her laptop with her, she would email.

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