File Name: conflict management and negotiation skills .zip
Forest Restoration in Landscapes pp Cite as.
Negotiation in Conflict Management.
Our Certificate Course in Conflict Analysis is the first in the series, and we strongly recommend that you take it prior to taking this course. Effective action is invariably the product of insightful analysis.
It informs other skills, such as mediation, and can be crucial to effectiveness at any point in the life cycle of a conflict. Certificate of Completion Throughout the course you will be prompted to test your understanding of terms and concepts. When the course is complete, you will have the opportunity to take a course exam. When you pass the exam, you will earn our Certificate of Completion in this negotiation course.
The day marked a particularly tragic event in a long, bitter struggle against racial oppression. On the anniversary of this massacre, 25 years later, police opened fire once again, killing and wounding more unarmed protestors. With this macabre replay of history, townships across South Africa erupted in a wave of desperation. Like the generation before them, these desperate men and women were protesting apartheid, a brutal, comprehensive system that through a range of notorious laws and practices—including the Mixed Marriages Act, the Group Areas Act, the Bantu Education Act, and the Job Reservation Act—was designed to enforce racial privilege.
By , in a determined attempt to hold on, the South African government declared a national state of emergency and launched a bloody crackdown. Tens of thousands of youths were detained without trial, and many were tortured and killed. In response, the Mass Democratic Movement, representing over 7, organizations and 2,, individuals, called for general insurrection.
The nation teetered on the edge of civil war. In , with security costs out of control and the economy in a tailspin, de Klerk surprised the world with his decision to release Mandela from his prison on Robben Island, where the graying leader had languished for 27 years.
In their next encounter, the ANC agreed to suspend its armed struggle, while the government agreed to release political prisoners and allow political exiles to return to the country. Their mission: to negotiate a new constitution, one that would protect and empower all citizens, and to prepare the divided nation for its first multiracial election.
Dawn of the Nuclear Age The South African example shows how courageous negotiations can curb violence within a state, but what about violence between states? In , the United States became the first nation to test and use nuclear weapons. Just four years later, the Soviet Union detonated its first nuclear device.
In , American President Harry S. Truman authorized the development of the first hydrogen bomb, which was detonated in The yield of this weapon was times that of the original nuclear device. By , the Soviet Union detonated its first H-bomb.
The United Kingdom detonated its first nuclear weapon in and its first H-bomb in By , with French and Chinese nuclear weapons on the horizon, substantial concern about the spread of these devices was growing throughout the international community. To address this concern, the General Assembly of the United Nations called for an agreement to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
But the challenges to negotiating such an agreement were substantial. For example, aspiring nuclear powers would have to be convinced to forgo their efforts, while those who already had such weapons would have to accept constraints on their own strength in a still dangerous world.
Also, such an agreement would require Cold War adversaries to work together in a way that seemed improbable during a prolonged period of confrontation. The agreement consists of three pillars. For their part, the other signatories to the treaty would not seek such weapons. Through the second pillar, those states already possessing nuclear weapons would pursue limits on their arsenals, with the ultimate goal of eliminating them, so that all treaty members would be of equal status. The third pillar provided non-nuclear-weapons states with the promise of assistance in pursuing peaceful uses of nuclear technology, a crucial incentive for societies in search of scientific and economic development.
For roughly half a century, the NPT has provided a highly effective framework for controlling nuclear proliferation. More than member-states have agreed to extend it indefinitely, although today the treaty faces some of the toughest challenges in its history. Negotiation can be useful at each stage in the life cycle of a conflict.
In a way it sounds so rational, so simple: talking out differences, instead of fighting. Yet experience proves the difficulty of the task. Convincing potential foes to lay down their arms and negotiate is by no means a simple undertaking, especially for embittered combatants. Getting meaningful, mutually satisfactory, lasting results is usually very hard work, and is never guaranteed. Negotiation and Risk Moreover, negotiations of this kind are not without risk.
They require vision and courage. Although negotiators in South Africa eventually succeeded, political violence actually increased in the few short years following the release of Mandela. Likewise, success looked doubtful at many points in the negotiations over the NPT. In both cases, it was never evident throughout the course of negotiations that agreement would eventually emerge.
But analysis, from our perspective, is not an end in itself. That process of dealing with the other side is called a negotiation. Any negotiator who ignores the emotional quotient, is ignoring a very important part of the negotiation. Fortunately, to help negotiators improve their chances of success, there is a substantial body of experience from which to draw.
Since ancient times, diplomats and political philosophers have written extensively about negotiation. Since the latter half of the 20th century, the subject has been studied systematically by both academics and practitioners.
Drawing on academic studies and practitioner experience, this course will focus on the techniques and skills of successful negotiation. Some people appear to be born negotiators. It helps to realize that we all negotiate as part of our daily lives—at home with friends and family, at work with colleagues and supervisors, and in the marketplace with partners and competitors.
Most of the principles that apply in these negotiations apply in every context at all levels. Context and Scope Courses and books on negotiation typically focus on specific contexts, such as negotiation in business settings, within the legal profession, concerning personal matters, etc.
This course will draw upon wide-ranging scholarship and practice from these and other fields; however, it will focus on negotiation as it applies to the prevention and management of international conflict— negotiation as an alternative to violence. The course will also examine vital roles that can be played by midlevel leaders, local leaders, and individuals in paving the way for peace.
The principles covered in this course will also apply to related forms of international negotiation, such as trade talks, as well as to the kinds of negotiations faced by those who work in zones of conflict every day: soldiers, civilian police, legal professionals, business leaders, civil society leaders, aid workers, and local government officials. In their scale, these day-to-day negotiations may not be comparable to comprehensive peace agreements, but they are very important to those involved, as when soldiers and aid workers must negotiate safe passage for food and medical supplies through hostile territory.
Moreover, in their cumulative effect, these day-to-day interactions can determine what is and is not possible in wider peacemaking and reconciliation. Perspectives There are people who are born negotiators.
But I do think that negotiation can be learned, so there is hope for the reticent and the doubtful. But also with seeing that negotiation is a normal part of everyday life and not part of something that only a top-notch ambassador or special envoy does or only the president or his specific designee does. We all negotiate with our friends and family everyday, all the time.
Knowing that and being alert to that, I think, it may intimidate some people but I think it's also a way of realizing that none of us is completely new to negotiation. And I think it is also important for those who feel that they may not be good negotiators to realize that there is always a kind of power that can be used even if you are not the one with the money or the military or the international community at your back.
There are always forms of power that can be used in a relationship situation because negotiation comes from human relationships. There is a way to have a human relationship and make something out of that. And then, reduce that to certain steps that you need to consider and how you might go about considering those steps in order to be more effective as you negotiate.
One of them is simply through training and learning the different techniques that go into negotiating both in optimal and impossible types of circumstances. Another one is to prepare yourself for negotiation.
Another one is experience—the more you practice the better you get. It follows our course in conflict analysis and precedes our course in mediation. We strongly recommend that the conflict analysis course be taken before this one, and this course in negotiation before the course in mediation.
Conflict Analysis In the conflict analysis course, we presented the Curve of Conflict, 4 which shows how the use of force in violent conflict tends to rise and fall over time, how to recognize different phases of conflict, and how to characterize conflict management and peacebuilding efforts used in different phases. Negotiation can be used to prevent violence before it has taken hold upward slope of the curve , to stop violence once it has begun top of the curve , and to prevent its recurrence and create conditions for a lasting peace in the aftermath of violence downward slope of the curve.
In the conflict analysis course, we also introduced a framework to help dissect a conflict into fundamental component parts, including its actors, issues, root causes, scope, resources, relationships, and history of peacemaking efforts. Mediation For all their efforts, negotiators often do not succeed. This is particularly true for the kind of existential conflicts previously described by Kelman, Saunders, Freeman and others.
Many of the examples that we use in this course—and many of the principles apply to them— will come from negotiations that were conducted with the help of a third party. Our next course will focus specifically on how third parties can assist in negotiation and will draw substantially on elements from this course. Mediation and other third party roles are often highly complex and require full separate treatment. First and foremost, though, a mediator must have a thorough grounding in the principles, processes, and best practices of effective negotiation.
What kinds of aims, long- and short-range, will this course help you achieve? Depending on the subject of the negotiation, these aims will be defined in various ways. When a conflict escalates, negotiators will try to prevent potential violence or stop actual violence, either through preventive or crisis diplomacy, often resulting in cease-fires or other rapidly negotiated agreements.
When successful, such agreements are substantial accomplishments that immediately start saving lives. However, by themselves these agreements generally do not address the root causes that led to violence in the first place.
The basic steps are similar to those used in mediation, but without the third party. These steps generally include: each party explaining their side of the story while the other party listens, identifying underlying needs, brainstorming solutions, and identifying and implementing a solution that works for both parties. To help students remain engaged and understand the concepts, these programs typically are interactive and utilize activities and role-plays that teach the skills and process steps. Although it is beyond the scope of this chapter, it is important to note that the skills of negotiation may also be taught as one component of a comprehensive, school-wide CRE program. Below you'll find a randomized listing of up to 20 related items we may have more Sample Catalog Resources Below you'll find a randomized listing of up to 20 related items we may have more Resource Title Description Links New directions and issues in the teaching of conflict resolution Pdf article from Conflict Management in Higher Education Report, Volume 2, Number 2, Feb , which "explores the issues related to understanding the effectiveness of the process and content of conflict resolution specifically negotiation teaching and training, it asks whether or not the right approach to training is being used and if the training "sticks," it also questions how the content of the field is evolving and if teaching methods are tracking the evolution.
The term conflict refers to perceived incompatibilities resulting typically from some form of interference or opposition. Conflict management, then, is the employment of strategies to correct these perceived differences in a positive manner. For many decades, managers had been taught to view conflict as a negative force. However, conflict may actually be either functional or dysfunctional. Whereas dysfunctional conflict is destructive and leads to decreased productivity, functional conflict may actually encourage greater work effort and help task performance. Borisoff and Victor point out, "We have come to recognize and to acknowledge the benefits dealing with conflict affords.
Time: 82 hours Free Certificate Negotiation refers to the interactive process we participate in to advance individual and joint interests. Almost every transaction with another individual involves negotiation. We often use the same methods of negotiation in our personal, professional, and political worlds. As we learn in this course, negotiation, conflict resolution, and relationship management are complex processes. Successful practitioners possess and apply a blend of perceptual, persuasive, analytical, and interpersonal skills. In the ever-changing, modern business environment, business managers start and expand their business operations by virtue of their successful negotiations and the long-term relationships they develop among two, three, or more parties.
Negotiation and Conflict Management
Our goal here is to make complex educational theory as practical and as accessible as possible for busy medical teachers — to stimulate you, reduce duplication of work and help you add creativity to your educational programme. If you have files you would like me to host on here and share with others, please email them to me. At some point in your consulting, you will encounter a conflict situation with a patient.
When a dispute flares up and conflict resolution is required, the outcome can be sadly predictable: the conflict escalates, with each side blaming the other in increasingly strident terms. The dispute may end up in litigation, and the relationship may be forever damaged. The following three negotiation strategies for conflict resolution from the realm of business negotiation can help parties mend their partnership, avoid the expense of a lawsuit, and even create value.
Он рассчитывал, сидя в испанском баре, услышать по Си-эн-эн пресс-конференцию об американском сверхсекретном компьютере, способном взломать любые шифры. После этого он позвонил бы Стратмору, считал пароль с кольца на своем пальце и в последнюю минуту спас главный банк данных АНБ. Вдоволь посмеявшись, он исчез бы насовсем, превратившись в легенду Фонда электронных границ.
Джабба нередко прибегал к ВР, что в компьютерных кругах означало виртуальная реальность, но в АНБ это сокращение имело несколько иной смысл - визуальная репрезентация. В мире технических служащих и политиков, имеющих чрезвычайно разные уровни понимания, визуальная репрезентация нередко была единственным способом что-либо доказать: взмывающая вверх кривая производит куда более сильное впечатление, чем целые тома рассуждений. Джабба понимал, что ВР текущего кризиса со всей наглядностью объяснит то, что он хотел сказать.
Электроснабжение уже наверняка восстановили. - Он открыл жалюзи. - Все еще темно? - спросила Мидж. Но Бринкерхофф не ответил, лишившись дара речи.
Танкадо рассудил, что, если он погибнет, деньги ему не понадобятся, - так почему бы не вручить миру маленький прощальный подарок.