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- Managing Organisational Change and Development
- The effects of organisational change on employee psychological attachment An exploratory study
- Planned organisational change management: Forward to the past? An exploratory literature review
A good planning and genuine implementation of change is something that every organisation must do to remain competitive in the ever dynamic business environment.
Kotter and Schlesinger provide a practical, tested way to think about managing that change. The rapid rate of change in the world of management continues to escalate. New government regulations, new products, growth, increased competition, technological developments, and an evolving workforce compel organizations to undertake at least moderate change on a regular basis. Yet few major changes are greeted with open arms by employers and employees; they often result in protracted transitions, deadened morale, emotional upheaval, and the costly dedication of managerial time.
Managing Organisational Change and Development
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Kumar Krishna. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. OD practitioner role, competencies and professional ethics. OD process Initiating OD relationship, contracting and diagnosing the problem, Diagnosing models, open systems, individual level group level and organizational level diagnosis; collection and analysis for diagnostic information, feeding back the diagnosed information Designing OD interventions Human process interventions:- coaching, training and development, process consultation, third part intervention, and team building.
Organization confrontation meeting, intergroup relations intervention, and large group intervention, Techno structural interventions:- Structural design, downsizing, reengineering, employee involvement, work design, socio technical systems approach HR and Strategic interventions HRM interventions:- performance management, goal setting, performance coaching, appraising and rewarding, Career planning, workforce diversity interventions, wellness and work-life balance, Strategic interventions: Competitive strategies, collaborative strategies, organizational transformation, culture change, self designing organizations, learning and knowledge management.
Special applications of OD OD in, health care organizations, family owned organizations, educational institutions, public sector organizations and future directions in OD.
Introduction to organizational change Nature of change, forces of change, reinventing Kurt Levin, organizational routines and mental models, change need analysis, content of change, types and styles of change, building capability for change, providing leadership to change, action research and dialogue, types of change, organizational vision, cultural change, strategic planning, creating support systems and managing transition, process oriented strategies and competitor oriented strategies and customer oriented strategies.
Executing change: challenges of execution, execution framework, developing cross functional linkages, aligning policies, and removing structural impediments, developing new routines for innovation and improvement, considering human element.
Suggested Readings: 1. Bolman and T. Deal,Jossey-Bass Publishers 3. Organization Development and Change by T. Cummings and C. South Western College Publishing 4. Cummings, Thomas G. They Objectives are faced with tremendous forces of change, arising from 1. To Critically examine the philosophies, values, assumptions and ethical issues associated with organizational paradigms economic turbulence, the globalisation of business, fierce from a change management perspective and to be able to competition, rapid advances in information technology, TQM, apply organizational development as a meta theory Knowledge management, and workforce diversity.
No sector, 2. To explore the practice of change management and its limits organisation or occupation is immune from this constant and with strategic management and to understand the management of change process and examine individual inexorable change. To probe the development role of HR practitioner as performance. But it has dual focus of developing individuals facilitators and managers of change and to develop key competencies suitable for application in OD interventions.
French and Bell in their 4. Organisation development is a process for teaching people how 5. E xamine ways of improving organizational effectiveness to solve problems, take advantage of opportunities, and learn how to do better and better overtime. Understand and analyze different approaches to managing organisation as a whole. A major thrust in organisation organizational change and understand and utilize the development is improving organizational effectiveness by competencies required for effective change management at organization, group and individual levels.
Devise effective intervention strategies and function as an Research has established that OD programmes produce positive internal HR consultant to an organization in transition, results. OD interventions are powerful methods for improving critically address problems of implementation, responsibility and measurement of effectiveness and be aware of external organizational and individual performance. So organisation consultancy interests. Critically evaluate, in an organizational development changes in environment factors.
The book management which can be used in organizations in change reviews the stateof —art of Theoretical and practical applications and transition. Suggestions for improvement of this textbooks for educational purpose will be highly appreciated. Topic Page No. Lesson 1 What is Organisation Development? Learning Object ives growth and service to society.
The Organization Development? Often asked this question because external environment is in terms of forces in the social, political, currently there is no agreement on the meaning of the term economic and cultural factors. That is why I am explosion, rapid growth of technology — all constitute threat to going to explain what we mean by that. We firmly believe that organizational effectiveness. That is why our main environment which includes existing structure, technology, goal is to help our clients to organize their internal resources in needs and expectations of its people and the changing scenario the most efficient way for their development.
For instance, to of labor force. For us the key term is environment. E ssentially there are two schools of thought in development. Therefore before discussing It is an older approach.
They at best serve the organizational control or maintenance function. Proponents of An organization is a system consisting of four interacting this approach view organization as a system which can be subsystems: structure, technology, people and task.
Structure changed and developed to best achieve its goals and objectives. Task refers have contributed to the system-process school. An emerging to the set of activities to be performed. In other words, the role for OD is system based and focuses on total organization behavioral specification associated with a job. Technology relates effectiveness and hence goes beyond the traditional personnel to the level of sophistication determining the work-flow and programmers.
The emphasis is much more on work groups performance of jobs in an organization. Higher technology, within and across departments rather than individuals as such. Organizations may be classified as to their level of prescribed policies and procedures, the system process school technology: high, medium, low or obsolete. People variable encourages openness, and collaborative ways of solving refers to the human input in the organization i.
It is likely that the objectives of working in the organization. Organization as a system can be changed and developed to achieve its goals in the best possible way. Assignments 1. What are different school of thoughts of Organisation development 2. How can you distinguish OD and planned change from other forms of organizational change?
OD is not a micro approach to change. These experiments highlighted the impor- tance of employee attitudes and expectations, informal work We w ill Learn about the Features of OD groups, norms and values and participation in decision making To enlarge upon the definition of OD Let us examine some of as influencing performance — all these still central concepts in the basic characteristics of OD programs.
Though there are divergent opinions Planned Change : It is a planned strategy to bring about and attitudes about the nature and practice of OD, among its organizational Change.
This change effort aims at specific practitioners, a general consensus may be noticed among them objectives and is based on the diagnosis of problem areas. Collaborative: OD typically involves a collaborative approach In any OD effort the totality of the organization is to be taken to change which includes the involvement and participation of into account.
Organization being an integrated system of sub- those organization members most affected by the changes. The approach should improve and enhance performance and quality TQM. OD represents a systems The theoretical body of knowledge underlying the concept and approach concerned with the interrelationship of various practice of OD is eclectic. Recent developments in the area of divisions ,departments ,groups and individuals and interdepen- behavioral sciences, especially psychology, sociology, anthropol- dent subsystems of the total organization.
The intended changes in OD programmers may be carried out Focal Area at any of the sub-system levels such as: Change is planned by managers to achieve goals. Involves collaborative approach and involvement. Scientific approaches supplement values practical experience. Organization The benefits of the planned effort to the organization are development practitioners have come to realize that conven- measured in terms of improvements noticed in the perfor- tional training techniques are no longer sufficient for effecting mance of the sub-system where the change has been the type of behavioral changes needed to create adaptive implemented, related sub-systems that have an interface with organizations.
New techniques have been developed to provide the changed sub-system, and the organization as a whole. One interesting question is, can initiated on the basis of a study of the existing structure — OD be used change nations as well as organizations?
Regardless of others. The planned change may be on the basis of what an in the method selected, the objectives are to work from an overall ideal structure should be like. Organizations employees may be involved in identifying problems in the have objectives such as making profit, surviving, and growing; existing structure and also in evolving a strategy for change. What is of concern business environment managers must continuously monitor is the designing of jobs for better performance.
Job related change and adapt their systems to survive by staying competi- aspects such as authority, responsibility, activities the attitudes, tive in a turbulent arena. The roots of OD lie in the famous Hawthorne experiments Research studies have shown that job attitudes and job carried out at the Western E lectric company by E lton Mayon satisfaction influence performance.
Jobs enlargement and job enrichment are the job design use tat the total organizational level. Notes OD practitioners also aim at improving the interpersonal climate. The work climate of openness, trust and collaboration has positive influence on performance, while the climate of suspicion, distrust and hostility result in low or mediocre performance.
The climate should be supportive, proactive and allow for opportunities to be creative and original. Communication is the life of an organization and effective communication is basic to internal work climate. OD efforts may be directed to identify the gaps and problems in the formal communication network and improve the communication process.
Communication network may be analyzed in terms of the following methods. Residential Analysis: It helps in understanding how a given organization really functions. The analyst is a live in observer of the communication process. Participant Analysis: Data is collected about how communica- tion is actually taking place in the network by interviewing the individuals or through a questionnaire.
Duty Study: Like a cop of observing the traffic on a high way, the analyst positions himself in the communication network at any spot and studies the communication flow.
The effects of organisational change on employee psychological attachment An exploratory study
Planned organisational change management: Forward to the past? An exploratory literature review
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You can easily adapt the Lecture Notes, Study Materials , and Books to take full advantage of the complete material we offer in Below Links. The history of organization development is rich with the contributions of behavioral scientists and practitioners. Systematic organization development activities have a recent history. Organizational change is the process by which organizations move from their present state to some desired future state to increase their effectiveness.
Organizational development is an often-heard term and a key organizational function. In this complete guide, we will take a closer look at a concept that many have heard of but are unfamiliar with. We will dive into what organizational development is, its goals, examples of common organizational development interventions and techniques, and the OD process.
Employee commitment is a concept which has attracted much attention in recent years. Research has focused on relationships between commitment and various facets of individual performance and on the psychological basis of the commitment itself. Profiles the pattern of employee commitment found in an exploratory study of employees of a large retail bank which is undergoing a process of both structural and cultural change.
What is organizational development? A definition
ORG Ее внимание сразу же привлекли буквы ARA - сокращенное название Анонимной рассылки Америки, хорошо известного анонимного сервера. Такие серверы весьма популярны среди пользователей Интернета, желающих скрыть свои личные данные. За небольшую плату они обеспечивают анонимность электронной почты, выступая в роли посредников. Это все равно что номерной почтовый ящик: пользователь получает и отправляет почту, не раскрывая ни своего имени, ни адреса. Компания получает электронные сообщения, адресованные на подставное имя, и пересылает их на настоящий адрес клиента.
Это был ТРАНСТЕКСТ, компьютер, равного которому не было в мире, - шифровальная машина, засекреченная агентством. Подобно айсбергу машина скрывала девяносто процентов своей массы и мощи под поверхностью. Ее секрет был спрятан в керамических шахтах, уходивших на шесть этажей вниз; ее похожий на ракету корпус окружал лабиринт подвесных лесов и кабелей, из-под которых слышалось шипение фреоновой системы охлаждения.