Physical Activity And Leisure Motivation Scale Questionnaire Pdf

physical activity and leisure motivation scale questionnaire pdf

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Middle-aged and older Chinese adults 35 to 75 failed to meet the recommendations of physical activity guidelines for health promotion, because of a lack of understanding of their perspective on physical activity. This study considers the physical activity levels and motivation among middle-aged and older Chinese adults partitioned into three different participation groups sports, exercise, and recreational and cultural activities.

Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale

Middle-aged and older Chinese adults 35 to 75 failed to meet the recommendations of physical activity guidelines for health promotion, because of a lack of understanding of their perspective on physical activity. This study considers the physical activity levels and motivation among middle-aged and older Chinese adults partitioned into three different participation groups sports, exercise, and recreational and cultural activities.

A cross-sectional analysis was performed on participants, based on two different levels of physical activity levels. The participants who engage in recreational and cultural activities have a higher motivation for physical activity, as compared with those whose primary form of physical activity is sports and exercise, and a higher probability to fulfill the global recommendations concerning physical activity.

Previous studies [ 4 — 7 ] investigated the motivations for sports or exercise involvement [ 8 ]. Kilpatrick et al. Their findings backed that intrinsic motivations like affiliation, competition, challenge, and enjoyment were ranked higher in sports than for exercise.

Their study also supported that external motivations such as health and appearance were the prime motivations to participate in exercise. Laziness and inactivity have been acknowledged and seen as a high-risk aspect for illness. Existing studies about physical activities among middle-aged and older Chinese people are scarce and also limited in quality and scope.

In particular, there is a lack of knowledge about the patterns and prevalence of PA exercise, sports, and participation into recreational and cultural activities RCAs among middle-aged and older peoples in urban areas. The lack of advanced studies in this area is one of the most important hindrances towards the development of strategies for addressing the significance of physical activities to increase PA rate in China.

Our study helps to bridge this gap; it presents how physical activities significantly influence and motivate the life of middle-aged and older Chinese people, with a key focus on people living in urban areas of China. The study has significant public health implications for scholars, physician, and policymakers for future studies. In addition, it also covers daily family activities like grocery shopping, household chores, or taking the trash out. In particular, this includes flexibility and body harmony, as well as balance, cardiovascular fitness, brawny fitness, and skill-related components of fitness associated with enhanced performance between middle-aged and older adults [ 1 , 16 ].

Therefore, sports include entire forms of spirited PA or events which take place in an organized or casual manner. The key motive is to utilize them in order to maintain and develop further physical capabilities and skills.

In addition to providing satisfaction to the participants, it also procures amusement for the audience. Owing to the motive of this inquiry, sports are prearranged events which individuals, as well as groups of individuals, engage in for their benefit and improve their skills at these sports [ 17 ].

For instance, our study considers basketball, badminton, tennis, table tennis, golf, racquetball, and soccer. Recreation actions consist of PA for individuals, or groups of individuals, done during their spare time and procuring satisfaction. Recreation participants take on special activities for pleasure according to their preferences and circumstances. Some examples of recreational activities are mountaineering, dancing, fishing, farming, and hiking, to name a few. Several aspects of human activities and community practices, e.

According to Deci and Ryan [ 22 ] and Ryan et al. Previous studies show that there is a relationship among sports activities with intrinsic motivations and exercise with extrinsic motivations. In this study, we considered sports and RCAs as the part of intrinsic motivation, while exercise is viewed as the part of extrinsic motivation.

We defined intrinsic motivation as the inner willingness to do physical activities and extrinsic motivation as the willingness to perform physical activities driven by others. Also, the kinds of sports, exercise, and recreational activities modify participation motives [ 25 ]. Research studies have perused exercise motivation along with a multiplicity of populations, inclusion primary school [ 26 ] adolescents [ 27 ], college-age students [ 6 ], university students [ 5 ], adults [ 4 , 28 ], middle-aged adults [ 29 ], and older adults [ 30 ].

Recreational styles of PA, i. This will possibly improve the assessment of rates to energetic free time activities through aerobic or muscle-based involvements [ 31 ]. PA could be changing from controlled, acute aerobic exercise to less structured prearranged and extra routine-oriented types of exercise, like dance, dance exercise, thaichi, wushu, and martial arts.

The elementary intention of the survey is to evaluate physical activity levels WHO and then physical activity motivation to expand the motivational constructs connected through exercise and sports involvement with the additional physical activity type RCAs. The authors are fluent in the local language of the selected country as well as in the English language.

They translated the English version of the questionnaire into local languages, and then it was interpreted back into English to check the quality of the translation.

This bilingual approach helps ensuring that the translation is accurate and valid. In the survey, participants were provided with clear definitions of exercise, sports, and RCAs. Then, they were asked to identify their principal type of PA exercise, sports, and RCAs according to the classifications and illustrations supplied. Furthermore, physical activity levels are classified into two categories according to time and activity types vigorous and moderate. Though the EMI scale was initially applied to judge motivation to exercise, however, the current research expands the focus to sports, exercise, and RCAs towards PA.

In the questionnaire first part, the participants were asked about their gender, age, marital status, living arrangement, education, self-rated health, social environment motivator, and physical functioning limitations.

Prior to starting the main survey, first, a study based on a focus group was conducted with few Ph. Subsequently, minor changes were made regarding the sequence and wording of some questions following recommendations from the focus group.

We distributed the questionnaires to middle-aged and older people, who completed it but considered only those filled by participants whose age was above 35 [ 28 ].

Thus, replies were used for the final study. Participants were informed that involvement was voluntary and they could remove themselves from the survey at any time. To check both the measurement of physical activity levels and the motivation, we selected the SPSS Statistical analysis was utilized to find out which particular styles of physical activity are preferred and determine the higher motivations in middle-aged and older people.

The significance level for alpha was. This analysis allowed us to search for the outcome of activity types on the entire motivational scales, where outcomes are considered significant whenever. However, our research found alpha values for sports , exercise , and RCAs Table 1. Participants were asked about the time spent on physical activity and were categorized into three ranges as minimum PA, moderate PA, or vigorous PA requirements Table 1.

They were also asked whether they are a member or members of any PA club or contributed in any sports or PA competition. Moreover, they were asked to identify their principal type of PA exercise, sports, and RCAs according to the classifications and illustrations supplied.

Participants specified the number of days they joined for each type of PA and, for each day, how long time they participated and then categorized in which PA level it belonged. The number of days multiplied by the quantity of time spent on each PA supplied us with the total quantity of time engaged in PA for all levels. Here, the means of the initial data are used in the statistical assessment of individual PA levels.

From Table 2 , information concerning attendees, demographics, and physical condition individuality are dedicated consistent to PA levels. Contemporary PA levels were observed between contributors who were grouped as being energetic in sports, exercise, and RCAs. However, the sports participation group reported the lowest participation percentage in PA. Furthermore, we studied statistical segregations between PA styles and we used statistical means into motivational items rankings Table 4.

However, few similarities are found among participants motivation to participate in exercise and RCAs according to motivational ranking. This study is in line with [ 6 , 34 ] and supports the conception that RCAs styles of PA are significant sources of PA while individuals tend to be better physically energetic than individuals who are far away.

Results of this study indicate that Results of this study are in contradiction with earlier studies [ 4 — 7 ], showing that those who involve themselves in RCAs as their basic types of PA have motivational constructs Stress Management and Affiliation which are intrinsic ones.

On the other hand, physical condition and fitness purposes are usually extrinsic and have been established to improve exercise activities, in particular when individuals find their relevance in movement and include it as an element of their desire principles and requirements [ 35 ].

But physical condition and fitness shift closer to intrinsic motivation and become better liable to be maintained in the long term [ 36 ]. On the other hand, sports participants report the lowest percentage of participation. This is due to the unavailability of sports or league competition and also to the limitation of playing for amusement for the group of middle-aged and older adults. Nevertheless, they do have the capability to participate on a daily basis to sports activities in their backyard, such as basketball or table tennis.

Also, Enjoyment and Stress Management are found to be more important in motivating RCAs but to a lesser level in sports and even less so for exercise. While activity is fun and enjoyable with challenges, people willingly engage in activities with playfulness and thereby need no or little extrinsic motivations to do so, in particular, when the activity involves opportunity, enjoyment, a sense of competence, and an opportunity for social relations [ 23 , 27 ] like in the case of RCAs and sports.

Furthermore, we found that participants who are club members of any entertaining or recreational organization or who regularly participate in PA with family members or friends have more chances to achieve high level of physical activity.

This study contributes significantly to the prevailing literature. Through the results of this study, scholars can perform both intrinsic and extrinsic analyses to accurately evaluate the influence of exogenous variables. Second, in perspective of the role of PA values, the findings of this study show sports and exercise intention values have a lesser influence on participants PA motivational intentions than RCAs values.

However, these outcomes are contrary to those seen in earlier studies [ 4 — 7 ], but this study indicates that RCAs have a direct significant influence on participants Stress Management, Enjoyment, and Affiliation.

Third, contrary to previous studies [ 4 — 7 ] of PA motivations, Affiliation and Enjoyment are found to have a key effect on PA motivational intentions in middle-aged and older Chinese adults. A possible explanation could be that when participants identify RCAs as easy to use, they may develop a positive intention for the effectiveness of the PA. This positive connection could endorse the fact that participants are keen to adopt RCAs on the basis of use.

Scholars are recommended to apply these constructs in their research to get more awareness from their target audiences and add new facts to the PA styles. Finally, RCAs form a new phenomenon in China and tend to be studied along demographic aspects like gender, income, region e. Researchers could develop mobile applications by using artificial intelligence digital tools like a watch to guide or monitor how people should do PA in everyday life to maintain better health. With these applications or tools, participants could ask any questions in the national language about a particular method without the difficulty for doing activities.

Besides the implications for scholars, this study also suggests several implications for project managers. For example, dance exercise has included structural assurances in its PA policy that has made PA successful. Second, the findings of this study offer handy information for PA decision-makers in China, as the study provides full information on how to use different ways of managing and developing PA strategies. For example, this study confirms that RCAs had a significant influence on middle-aged and older adults PA motivations.

Results recommend that participants of RCAs may be more likely to do PA just for fun and enjoyment, whereas effective participants may be motivated to use RCAs to enhance their psychophysical productivity. So, trainer or decision-makers should ensure a good quality of activities and a diversified range of activities and services and other activities related to effective PA values. More precisely, given utilitarian PA values, project managers or decision-makers should offer multipurpose services and free training systems for participants.

Moreover, due to cultural beliefs, it becomes easier for Chinese people to go outside and do PA. RCAs like dance, wushu, and thaichi provide a platform where the Chinese people can easily do PA in any place where people like with convenience and long-lasting with all norms and cultural values. It could assist people to develop optimistic views relating to the PA values. This trend could reshape the whole physical activity sector.

There are some limitations to this research. First, the study framework single city in single country may limit the generalization of results from this study.

Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS)

Metrics details. Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity PA levels have declined over the past two decades. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. This item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Also, test-retest reliability for the questionnaire sub-scales was between 0. In this sample, the PALMS demonstrated acceptable factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Understanding participation motivation and increasing adherence to physical activity among the general population is crucial for the overall well-being of our society. Existing measures do not adequately capture all the motives people have for engaging in sport and exercise. View via Publisher. Save to Library.

Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity PA levels have declined over the past two decades. In order to understand why this happens, numerous studies have been conducted to uncover the reasons for people's participation in PA. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. This item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Also, test-retest reliability for the questionnaire sub-scales was between 0.

Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Abstract Background: Although there is abundant evidence to recommend a physically active lifestyle, adult physical activity PA levels have declined over the past two decades. Often, the measures used were not broad enough to reflect all the reasons for participation in PA. This item scale related to participation in sport and PA is designed for adolescents and adults. Also, test-retest reliability for the questionnaire sub-scales was between 0. Conclusions: In this sample, the PALMS demonstrated acceptable factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity.

Show all documents A comprehensive measure of participation motivation: Examining and validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale PALMS Understanding participation motivation and increasing adherence to physical activity among the general population is crucial for the overall well-being of our society. Existing measures do not adequately capture all the motives people have for engaging in sport and exercise. A community sample of volunteer participants, males and 82 females, aged 18 to 71 years, was recruited from various organizations, clubs, and leisure centres. The participants represented different forms of physical activity namely, Australian Football League AFL , gym-based exercise, tae kwon do, tennis, and yoga.

Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale Palms

He has Doctorate degree in Psychology from Australia and has lectured at various universities. Dr Roychowdhury takes keen interest in teaching and research and is regularly invited to speak at various organizations in Australia and overseas. We log anonymous usage statistics. Please read the privacy information for details. Understanding participation motivation and increasing adherence to physical activity among the general population is crucial for the overall well-being of our society. Existing measures do not adequately capture all the motives people have for engaging in sport and exercise.

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A total of completed the PALMS questionnaire consisting of 40 items Keywords: Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS).


Validating the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (PALMS)

Top PDF Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale:

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Exercise Motivation Scale Questionnaire

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in physical activities (Rogers, Morris, & Moore, ; Whitehead, ). A number of questionnaires have been developed to measure.

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