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- What are Ontologies?
- What are ontologies, and why do we need them?
- Naturalism (philosophy)
- Handbook on Ontologies
In computer science and information science , an ontology encompasses a representation, formal naming and definition of the categories, properties and relations between the concepts, data and entities that substantiate one, many, or all domains of discourse. More simply, an ontology is a way of showing the properties of a subject area and how they are related, by defining a set of concepts and categories that represent the subject. Every academic discipline or field creates ontologies to limit complexity and organize data into information and knowledge.
What are Ontologies?
Handbook of Semantic Web Technologies pp Cite as. Ontologies have become a prominent topic in Computer Science where they serve as explicit conceptual knowledge models that make domain knowledge available to information systems. They play a key role in the vision of the Semantic Web where they provide the semantic vocabulary used to annotate websites in a way meaningful for machine interpretation. As studied in the context of information systems, ontologies borrow from the fields of symbolic knowledge representation in Artificial Intelligence, from formal logic and automated reasoning and from conceptual modeling in Software Engineering, while also building on Web-enabling features and standards. Although in Computer Science ontologies are a rather new field of study, certain accomplishments can already be reported from the current situation in ontology research.
Skip to Main Content. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions. What are ontologies, and why do we need them? Abstract: This survey provides a conceptual introduction to ontologies and their role in information systems and AI. The authors also discuss how ontologies clarify the domain's structure of knowledge and enable knowledge sharing. Article :.
What are ontologies, and why do we need them?
Natalya F. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Ontologies have become common on the World-Wide Web. The ontologies on the Web range from large taxonomies categorizing Web sites such as on Yahoo! Many disciplines now develop standardized ontologies that domain experts can use to share and annotate information in their fields. Medicine, for example, has produced large, standardized, structured vocabularies such as snomed Price and Spackman and the semantic network of the Unified Medical Language System Humphreys and Lindberg Broad general-purpose ontologies are emerging as well.
The ways in which agriculture has been developed have negatively affected the sustainability of global economies IAASTD Because the agrifood industry contributes to economic growth and is deeply connected to standards of living, it is crucial for sustainability. Until now, technological innovations have not been able to trigger the vital changes required; on the contrary, the industrialization of agriculture has increased the levels of throughput used in the global economy Krausmann and Fischer-Kowalski To foster a transition toward more sustainable agriculture, alternative solutions have emphasized the positive role of bio diversification and the ecological processes and services they provide Altieri , Kremen et al. Ultimately, these changes involve other sets of social norms, requiring a different conception of the human-technology-environment situation than that prevailing in the productive, technology-intensive mode of agricultural production Plumecocq et al. The knowledge used to manage technology-intensive production systems is no longer useful for informing individual and collective decision making in agroecological systems; however, tackling the complexity of the AET has analytical and scientific consequences.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Chandrasekaran and J.
Integration and Implementation Insights. How can understanding philosophy improve our research? How can an understanding of what frames our research influence our choices? These questions are all important for social science research. Here we present a philosophical guide for scientists to assist in the production of effective social science adapted from Moon and Blackman,
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Handbook on Ontologies
Candidates include neural nets, 'swarm intelligence', evolutionary computation, dynamical systems, particular types of architecture or use of a powerful uniform learning mechanism, e. All of those support types of self-organising, self-modifying behaviours. But we are nowhere near understanding the full variety of powerful information-processing principles 'discovered' by evolution. By attending closely to the diversity of biological phenomena we may gain key insights into a how evolution happens, b what sorts of mechanisms, forms of representation, types of learning and development and types of architectures have evolved, c how to explain ill-understood aspects of human and animal intelligence, and d new useful mechanisms for artificial systems. Sloman, J.
In philosophy , naturalism is the idea or belief that only natural laws and forces as opposed to supernatural or spiritual ones operate in the universe. Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative doctrines as an attitude or spirit pervading and influencing many doctrines. As the name implies, this tendency consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature. Either the limits of nature are also the limits of existing reality, or at least the first cause, if its existence is found necessary , has nothing to do with the working of natural agencies.
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Время идет, старик канадец может куда-нибудь исчезнуть. Вполне вероятно, он решит поскорее вернуться в Канаду. Или надумает продать кольцо. Беккер не мог ждать.
Мне неприятно тебе это говорить, - сказал Стратмор, - но лифт без электричества - это не лифт. - Вздор! - крикнул Хейл. - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания.
Hola. Тишина. Наверное, Меган, подумал. У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку.
Джабба сидел весь потный, положив руки на клавиатуру. - Да, да, - сказал он, - читайте эту благословенную надпись.