Eye Anatomy And Physiology Pdf File

eye anatomy and physiology pdf file

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Clinical Anatomy of the Eye, Second Edition

The lens is a transparent biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea , helps to refract light to be focused on the retina. By changing shape, it functions to change the focal length of the eye so that it can focus on objects at various distances, thus allowing a sharp real image of the object of interest to be formed on the retina. This adjustment of the lens is known as accommodation see also below. Accommodation is similar to the focusing of a photographic camera via movement of its lenses. The lens is more flat on its anterior side than on its posterior side.

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Lens (anatomy)

Normal age-related changes to the eyes and ears mean older people gradually see, hear and balance less well. Regular testing to detect common sight and hearing pathologies is essential. The special senses — sight, hearing, smell, touch and balance — allow us to perceive the world and communicate. Like all body systems, they undergo age-related changes that negatively affect their function. Physiological changes to the eyes and ears mean older people gradually see, hear and balance less well.

Anatomy describes the structure and location of the different components of an organism to provide a framework for understanding. Human anatomy studies the way that every part of a human, from molecules to bones, interacts to form a functional whole. There are two major types of anatomy. Gross macroscopic anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye, such as the external and internal bodily organs. Microscopic anatomy is the study of tiny anatomical structures such as tissues and cells.

The special senses of hearing, sight, smell and taste all have specialised sensory receptors nerve endings outside the brain. These are found in the ears, eyes, nose and mouth. In the brain the incoming nerve impulses undergo complex processes of integration and coordination that result in perception of sensory information and a variety of responses inside and outside the body.

Human eye , in humans, specialized sense organ capable of receiving visual images, which are then carried to the brain. The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a four-sided pyramid, the apex of which points back into the head. Thus, the floor of the orbit is made up of parts of the maxilla, zygomatic, and palatine bones, while the roof is made up of the orbital plate of the frontal bone and, behind this, by the lesser wing of the sphenoid. The optic foramen , the opening through which the optic nerve runs back into the brain and the large ophthalmic artery enters the orbit, is at the nasal side of the apex; the superior orbital fissure is a larger hole through which pass large veins and nerves.

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На загрузку программы и поиск вируса уйдет минут пятнадцать. Скажи, что ничего нет, - прошептал.  - Абсолютно. Скажи папе, что все в порядке. Но нутром он чувствовал, что это далеко не. Интуиция подсказывала ему, что в глубинах дешифровального чудовища происходит что-то необычное.


The eye is embryologically an extension of the central nervous system. It shares many common anatomical and physiological proper- ties with the brain. Both are​.


The Eye: Basic Sciences in Practice

Сьюзан прищурилась. Ты сам отлично знаешь, что происходит. - А ну-ка пропусти меня, Грег, - сказала.  - Мне нужно в туалет. Хейл ухмыльнулся, но, подождав еще минуту, отошел в сторону. - Извини, Сью, я пошутил.

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