File Name: positive and negative effects of globalization .zip
- Globalization and Politics: The Effects of globalization on human life aspects
- Looking for other ways to read this?
- Globalization: Definition, Benefits, Effects, Examples – What is Globalization?
Globalization and Politics: The Effects of globalization on human life aspects
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The data and evidence amassed by the committee have led to a number of conclusions, presented throughout this report and repeated in this chapter along with a summary of the rationale for each. MSE has become a global undertaking and is developing in a manner that is affecting U. How is globalization affecting U.
The benchmarking evidence presented in this report paints a varied picture. In the subfield of composites, the United States risks being unable to exploit the promise of composites because of the significant and continuing decline of its leadership in the subfield.
Leadership in the subfield of magnetic materials is mixed, with the United States in the lead in some critical areas and among the leaders in others. The situation in electronic and optical-photonic materials is mixed, with the United States leading in some areas and not in others. Currently, U. However, the United States does not dominate in any, because other countries share or surpass the U. The United States has seen a continued decline in its former dominance in catalyst technology.
While the United States leads global activity in nanomaterials and nanotechnology as measured by the number of corporations engaged in the subfield, it is too early to say which, if any, region of the world is going to show clear leadership as this field.
The use of nanotechnology in many electronic and photonic materials and devices means the U. Japan appears to have surpassed the United States in the alloys and ceramics subfields.
Global activity in all the subfields examined during this study is diversifying, with significant increases in Asian countries that had not been active in these fields. How this trend may evolve is unclear. This means that the loss of U. The proliferation of technology and capability to new parts of the world will, at the very least, complicate the analysis of potential threats and challenges to the United States and, at worst, lead potential adversaries to gain advantage in strategic fields.
As measured by patent applications in all classes, U. However, with increased output from other parts of the world, U. While the United States has lost competitive advantage in some materials subfields, such as catalysts, it has maintained it in others, such as semiconductor research. In fact, a relative decline in one subfield may release resources to be invested in another, more promising subfield where the United States enjoys a comparative advantage.
Globalization can facilitate the development by U. At this stage, economic analysis is limited by a dearth of data and by the lack of a comprehensive empirical framework. New threats to national and homeland security will require new materials for their detection. New tasks will require new weapons and new materials to make possible new and better delivery platforms. The new sys-. Because knowledge and the intellectual capacity to generate new knowledge are proliferating across the world, because innovation and development cycles are becoming shorter, and because U.
To avoid a negative impact, the U. Access is only one part of the story. Even if there is access, it might not be full access or access to the right sort of technology.
Such active management requires government action. In building a U. Including as participants a comprehensive range of stakeholders and decision makers from the defense, homeland security, and intelligence communities and obtaining significant input from and coordinating with the wider federal science and engineering agencies—including the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, NASA, and so on; and.
Building a robust and effective national strategy for ensuring U. With that in mind, the following immediate recommendations are made. Addressing the national need for better data and monitoring will require collective efforts on the part of the Department of Defense, the Department of Commerce, and other data-collecting and intelligence agencies.
Obtaining meaningful data on materials is difficult, because materials are intermediate products of other products. In a sense, materials are silent in terms of data , so that trends can be easily obscured in the more general statistics.
Current but limited DOD information-gathering activities around the world could be broadened and improved to assure access to international innovation. In addition, existing U. Modern database and communication systems for identifying synergies across the defense services should be developed.
Any strategy to respond to globalization must have at its foundation not only better monitoring of global activity but also a thorough knowledge of the relative status of U. The benchmarking carried out for this study was limited owing to the breadth of the overall study objectives and the constraints on time and resources.
A more comprehensive benchmarking study is needed. Such a study would have to be carried out in expedited fashion and soon, because the U. An expedited benchmarking study, similar to Experiments in International Benchmarking of U. Building a successful strategy to respond to globalization requires a thorough understanding of the knowledge needs of the national security and homeland defense systems.
Defining those needs can complement analyses of more immediate military needs by taking a longer-term perspective on the investment strategy required for establishing a military for the 21st century and securing the homeland. The Department of Defense should strengthen current systems for establishing clearly the materials needs of the 21st century warfighter as well as those essential to achieving national and homeland security priorities.
The potentially adverse effects of globalization on traditional U. In assessing the national security impacts, complacency is not a policy option. An analysis premised on the shorter-term and near-future technological requirements of the warfighter and on a survey of the supply of current technologies on the world market risks being myopic. The national security of the country is more interconnected and multidimensional than an analysis of immediate or predicted acquisition needs of the military would suggest.
Neither innovation nor future threats can always be foreseen and predicted. It may not always be clear today what a one- or two-generation lead over potential adversaries tomorrow might require in terms of new materials and technologies. In addition, previous success in acquiring re-. Existing systems within the government for assessing technologies critical to the 21st century warfighter and to wider national security concerns will benefit from the highest level of coordination and cooperation within DOD and between the relevant federal agencies.
A systematic review of the rationale for and the impacts of U. The review could seek input from both the defense and commercial sectors of the private sector and will also assess and build on existing internal government. The review should ask whether there are technologies the nation need not necessarily control but to which it merely needs secure access.
In addition, the review might consider innovative approaches. The idea would be to ensure access to all the relevant technologies without overburdening private firms and other researchers with regulations and without stunting U. There may be a temptation to protect U. Calling into question the exemption from ITAR of basic research would be one such protectionist move. An isolationist approach, however, would have significant costs because it would require a large government investment to maintain a sufficiently robust and productive capability in critical areas.
More important, retreating into such a protectionist posture might deprive the United States of superior technologies developed outside the United States and, of most concern, those developed in countries that are not the closest military allies of the United States. For instance, how will the U. How might the country choose which subfields are worth preserving in the United States?
Which technologies and expertise must the country retain control of, and which does it simply need continued access to? These are the kinds of questions that the discussion leading to a national strategy will have to answer. Maintaining a domestic U. As shown in this report, that system faces several challenges in this regard, including the increasingly broad curricula in MSE departments; the decreasing attractiveness of MSE as a career choice for high school and university graduates; and the continuing dependence of graduate programs on foreign students, who must be attracted to the United States in an increasingly competitive global market for the best students.
Industry roadmaps identifying industrial needs could also be part of the effort to guide MSE education in the decades ahead. The MSE education system, including K—12 mathematics and science education, will have to evolve and adapt so as to ensure a supply of MSE professionals educated to meet U. The evolution of the U. A number of issues could be considered in examining the education system: the promotion of MSE as a career choice; overcoming the deficiencies of students entering MSE programs from the K—12 system; meeting the evolving needs of U.
Maintaining expertise and leadership will be based on a robust research infrastructure. The data presented in this report clearly illustrate the huge technical downsizing of the U. As stated repeatedly herein, U. Rather, the development of a process methodology is a first step in the definition of a viable industrial route to production at the industrial scale.
The function of this kind of industrial activity is to explore new technical areas that could be of business interest to the company, maintain an awareness of what is happening in university or government laboratories, and transmit these findings to the relevant business units. How will science be brought to market? There is a need to maintain a robust U.
MSE innovation in a globalized environment, and build a national infrastructure to support a global role for the United States. The challenge here is multidimensional and intrinsically interconnected across many agencies within the federal government. As a result, the relative U. To understand better this trend and its implications for the U. This report presents a discussion of drivers affecting U. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.
Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.
Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free?
Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released.
Looking for other ways to read this?
AJOL and the millions of African and international researchers who rely on our free services are deeply grateful for your contribution. Your donation is guaranteed to directly contribute to Africans sharing their research output with a global readership. Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of globalization on certain aspects of the arts in the Ghanaian cultural milieu in recent times. The study is guided by preliminary qualitative studies based on formal and informal interviews, direct observations, questionnaire administration and review of pertinent documents. The data collected was analyzed against the backdrop of Ghanaian cultural diversity as far back as the pre-colonial era.
Globalization — what is it? What is the definition of globalization? Benefits and negative effects? What are the top examples of globalization? What famous quotes have been said about globalization?
Globalization: Definition, Benefits, Effects, Examples – What is Globalization?
Globalization has today become a major sort of debate among academicians, policy makers and NGOs. Its impact is profound. Poverties, inequalities, injustices, starvations, backwards and marginalizations are all serious problems many societies are still experiencing. The purpose of this paper is to examine the positive and negative aspects of globalization and realize how one could successfully deal with the challenge it poses. The study shows that though globalization is a process by which capital, goods, services and labor cross national borders, and acquire a transnational character, it is often accompanied by the flow of related lifestyles, tastes, ideas, and even values across boundaries which help reshape local political institutions, cultural patterns and social relations.
Long ago, in the era of Pangea, there was one single land mass and each point was reachable without having to cross oceans. There were no geographic boundaries. Then the world became increasingly separated. Until the great conquests of America and distant continents, the world consisted of separate entities.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The data and evidence amassed by the committee have led to a number of conclusions, presented throughout this report and repeated in this chapter along with a summary of the rationale for each.
The world is a global village. This is a phrase you must have had thrown around during business discussions.
Прислушавшись к пронзительному звуку генераторов, Сьюзан поняла, что включилось аварийное питание. Сквозь туман она увидела Стратмора, который стоял внизу, на платформе. Прислонившись к перилам, он вглядывался в грохочущее нутро шахты ТРАНСТЕКСТА. - Коммандер! - позвала Сьюзан. Ответа не последовало. Сьюзан спустилась по лестнице на несколько ступенек. Горячий воздух снизу задувал под юбку.