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- A Brief Illustrated History Of Machines And Mechanisms By Emilio Bautista Paz
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A Brief Illustrated History Of Machines And Mechanisms By Emilio Bautista Paz
A machine or mechanical device is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people , by natural forces such as wind and water , and by chemical , thermal , or electrical power, and include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. They can also include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, often called mechanical systems.
Renaissance natural philosophers identified six simple machines which were the elementary devices that put a load into motion, and calculated the ratio of output force to input force, known today as mechanical advantage. Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements, mechanisms and control components and include interfaces for convenient use. Examples include: a wide range of vehicles , such as automobiles , boats and airplanes ; appliances in the home and office, including computers, building air handling and water handling systems ; as well as farm machinery , machine tools and factory automation systems and robots.
A wider meaning of "fabric, structure" is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage. This meaning is found in late medieval French, and is adopted from the French into English in the midth century.
In the 17th century, the word machine could also mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination. The modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to military siege engines , both in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The word engine used as a near- synonym both by Harris and in later language derives ultimately via Old French from Latin ingenium "ingenuity, an invention".
The hand axe , made by chipping flint to form a wedge , in the hands of a human transforms force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting forces and movement of the workpiece. The hand axe is the first example of a wedge , the oldest of the six classic simple machines , from which most machines are based.
The second oldest simple machine was the inclined plane ramp ,  which has been used since prehistoric times to move heavy objects. The other four simple machines were invented in the ancient Near East. Three of the simple machines were studied and described by Greek philosopher Archimedes around the 3rd century BC: the lever, pulley and screw. The earliest practical water-powered machines, the water wheel and watermill , first appeared in the Persian Empire , in what are now Iraq and Iran, by the early 4th century BC.
The cotton gin was invented in India by the 6th century AD,  and the spinning wheel was invented in the Islamic world by the early 11th century,  both of which were fundamental to the growth of the cotton industry. The spinning wheel was also a precursor to the spinning jenny , which was a key development during the early Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.
The earliest programmable machines were developed in the Muslim world. A music sequencer , a programmable musical instrument , was the earliest type of programmable machine. The first music sequencer was an automated flute player invented by the Banu Musa brothers, described in their Book of Ingenious Devices , in the 9th century.
He described four automaton musicians, including drummers operated by a programmable drum machine , where they could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns.
During the Renaissance , the dynamics of the Mechanical Powers , as the simple machines were called, began to be studied from the standpoint of how much useful work they could perform, leading eventually to the new concept of mechanical work. In Flemish engineer Simon Stevin derived the mechanical advantage of the inclined plane, and it was included with the other simple machines.
The complete dynamic theory of simple machines was worked out by Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in in Le Meccaniche "On Mechanics". The classic rules of sliding friction in machines were discovered by Leonardo da Vinci — , but remained unpublished in his notebooks. They were rediscovered by Guillaume Amontons and were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb James Watt patented his parallel motion linkage in , which made the double acting steam engine practical.
The Industrial Revolution was a period from to where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. It began in the United Kingdom , then subsequently spread throughout Western Europe , North America , Japan , and eventually the rest of the world. Starting in the later part of the 18th century, there began a transition in parts of Great Britain's previously manual labour and draft-animal-based economy towards machine-based manufacturing.
It started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.
The idea that a machine can be decomposed into simple movable elements led Archimedes to define the lever , pulley and screw as simple machines. By the time of the Renaissance this list increased to include the wheel and axle , wedge and inclined plane. The modern approach to characterizing machines focusses on the components that allow movement, known as joints.
Wedge hand axe : Perhaps the first example of a device designed to manage power is the hand axe , also called biface and Olorgesailie. A hand axe is made by chipping stone, generally flint, to form a bifacial edge, or wedge. A wedge is a simple machine that transforms lateral force and movement of the tool into a transverse splitting force and movement of the workpiece.
The available power is limited by the effort of the person using the tool, but because power is the product of force and movement, the wedge amplifies the force by reducing the movement. This amplification, or mechanical advantage is the ratio of the input speed to output speed.
The faces of a wedge are modeled as straight lines to form a sliding or prismatic joint. Lever: The lever is another important and simple device for managing power. This is a body that pivots on a fulcrum. Because the velocity of a point farther from the pivot is greater than the velocity of a point near the pivot, forces applied far from the pivot are amplified near the pivot by the associated decrease in speed. The fulcrum of a lever is modeled as a hinged or revolute joint.
Wheel: The wheel is an important early machine, such as the chariot. A wheel uses the law of the lever to reduce the force needed to overcome friction when pulling a load. To see this notice that the friction associated with pulling a load on the ground is approximately the same as the friction in a simple bearing that supports the load on the axle of a wheel. However, the wheel forms a lever that magnifies the pulling force so that it overcomes the frictional resistance in the bearing.
The classification of simple machines to provide a strategy for the design of new machines was developed by Franz Reuleaux , who collected and studied over elementary machines. Simple machines are elementary examples of kinematic chains or linkages that are used to model mechanical systems ranging from the steam engine to robot manipulators.
The bearings that form the fulcrum of a lever and that allow the wheel and axle and pulleys to rotate are examples of a kinematic pair called a hinged joint. Similarly, the flat surface of an inclined plane and wedge are examples of the kinematic pair called a sliding joint.
The screw is usually identified as its own kinematic pair called a helical joint. This realization shows that it is the joints, or the connections that provide movement, that are the primary elements of a machine. Starting with four types of joints, the rotary joint, sliding joint, cam joint and gear joint, and related connections such as cables and belts, it is possible to understand a machine as an assembly of solid parts that connect these joints called a mechanism.
Two levers, or cranks, are combined into a planar four-bar linkage by attaching a link that connects the output of one crank to the input of another. Additional links can be attached to form a six-bar linkage or in series to form a robot. A mechanical system manages power to accomplish a task that involves forces and movement. Modern machines are systems consisting of i a power source and actuators that generate forces and movement, ii a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement, iii a controller with sensors that compare the output to a performance goal and then directs the actuator input, and iv an interface to an operator consisting of levers, switches, and displays.
This can be seen in Watt's steam engine in which the power is provided by steam expanding to drive the piston. The walking beam, coupler and crank transform the linear movement of the piston into rotation of the output pulley. Finally, the pulley rotation drives the flyball governor which controls the valve for the steam input to the piston cylinder. The adjective "mechanical" refers to skill in the practical application of an art or science, as well as relating to or caused by movement, physical forces, properties or agents such as is dealt with by mechanics.
Power flow through a machine provides a way to understand the performance of devices ranging from levers and gear trains to automobiles and robotic systems.
The German mechanician Franz Reuleaux  wrote, "a machine is a combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motion. More recently, Uicker et al. Waterwheel: Waterwheels appeared around the world around BC to use flowing water to generate rotary motion, which was applied to milling grain, and powering lumber, machining and textile operations.
Modern water turbines use water flowing through a dam to drive an electric generator. Windmill: Early windmills captured wind power to generate rotary motion for milling operations. Modern wind turbines also drives a generator. This electricity in turn is used to drive motors forming the actuators of mechanical systems.
Engine: The word engine derives from "ingenuity" and originally referred to contrivances that may or may not be physical devices. See Merriam-Webster's definition of engine. A steam engine uses heat to boil water contained in a pressure vessel; the expanding steam drives a piston or a turbine. This principle can be seen in the aeolipile of Hero of Alexandria. This is called an external combustion engine. An automobile engine is called an internal combustion engine because it burns fuel an exothermic chemical reaction inside a cylinder and uses the expanding gases to drive a piston.
A jet engine uses a turbine to compress air which is burned with fuel so that it expands through a nozzle to provide thrust to an aircraft , and so is also an "internal combustion engine.
Power plant: The heat from coal and natural gas combustion in a boiler generates steam that drives a steam turbine to rotate an electric generator. A nuclear power plant uses heat from a nuclear reactor to generate steam and electric power. This power is distributed through a network of transmission lines for industrial and individual use. Electric servomotors are the actuators for mechanical systems ranging from robotic systems to modern aircraft.
Fluid Power: Hydraulic and pneumatic systems use electrically driven pumps to drive water or air respectively into cylinders to power linear movement. The mechanism of a mechanical system is assembled from components called machine elements. These elements provide structure for the system and control its movement. The structural components are, generally, the frame members, bearings, splines, springs, seals, fasteners and covers.
The shape, texture and color of covers provide a styling and operational interface between the mechanical system and its users. The assemblies that control movement are also called " mechanisms. The number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism, or its mobility, depends on the number of links and joints and the types of joints used to construct the mechanism.
The general mobility of a mechanism is the difference between the unconstrained freedom of the links and the number of constraints imposed by the joints. The transmission of rotation between contacting toothed wheels can be traced back to the Antikythera mechanism of Greece and the south-pointing chariot of China.
Illustrations by the renaissance scientist Georgius Agricola show gear trains with cylindrical teeth. The implementation of the involute tooth yielded a standard gear design that provides a constant speed ratio. Some important features of gears and gear trains are:. A cam and follower is formed by the direct contact of two specially shaped links. The driving link is called the cam also see cam shaft and the link that is driven through the direct contact of their surfaces is called the follower.
The shape of the contacting surfaces of the cam and follower determines the movement of the mechanism.
A Brief Illustrated History of Machines and Mechanisms
This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this book. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! The series publishes works that give an overview of the historical developments, from the earliest times up to and including the recent past, of MMS in all its technical aspects. This technical approach is an essential characteristic of the series. By discussing technical details and formulations and even reformulating those in terms of modern formalisms the possibility is created not only to track the historical technical developments but also to use past experiences in technical teaching and research today. In order to do so, the emphasis must be on technical aspects rather than a purely historical focus, although the latter has its place too.
This book illustrates the historical development of machines and mechanisms more from a technical A Brief Illustrated History of Machines and Mechanisms PDF · Anonymous Developments. Emilio Bautista Paz, Marco Ceccarelli, Javier.
A Brief Illustrated History of Machines and Mechanisms (eBook, PDF)
From the reviews: "This work by mechanical engineers Bautista Paz It covers much mechanical engineering history, and if one wants to get an idea of the breadth and depth of the field, then this volume will do the job. Summing Up: Recommended. Lower-division undergraduates. Strauss, Choice, Vol.
Machines have always gone hand-in-hand with the cultural development of m- kind throughout time. A book on the history. Download Mechanics of Machines Books now! Emphasising the industrial relevance of the subject matter, this book dispenses with conventional inaccurate graphical methods used in kinematics of plane mechanisms, cams and balancing. Electrotechnics N5 Formula Sheet www.
A machine or mechanical device is a mechanical structure that uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action. Machines can be driven by animals and people , by natural forces such as wind and water , and by chemical , thermal , or electrical power, and include a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. They can also include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, often called mechanical systems. Renaissance natural philosophers identified six simple machines which were the elementary devices that put a load into motion, and calculated the ratio of output force to input force, known today as mechanical advantage. Modern machines are complex systems that consist of structural elements, mechanisms and control components and include interfaces for convenient use.
This book examines the evolution of machine design methodology from the Renaissance to the Age of Machines in the 19th century. This premise is based in part on the work of da Vinci scholar Ladislo Reti who translated the last discovered work of Leonardo da Vinci in In the Codex Madrid, Reti found evidence that Leonardo planned to write a book on basic machine elements and compared the great artist-engineer's drawings to the work of 19th C.
A book on the history of machines is nothing more than a specific way of bringing light to human events as a whole in order to highlight some significant milestones in the progress of knowledge by a complementary persp- tive into a general historical overview. This book is the result of common efforts and interests by several scholars, teachers, and students on subjects that are connected with the theory of machines and mechanisms. In fact, in this book there is a certain teaching aim in addition to a general historical view that is more addressed to the achievements by "homo faber" than to those by "homo sapiens", since the proposed history survey has been developed with an engineering approach. The brevity of the text added to the fact that the authors are probably not com- tent to tackle historical studies with the necessary rigor, means the content of the book is inevitably incomplete, but it nevertheless attempts to fulfil three basic aims: First, it is hoped that this book may provide a stimulus to promote interest in the study of technical history within a mechanical engineering context.
MDS classes with significant recommendations overlap, excluding ones under the same top-level class. Melvil Dewey invented his Dewey Decimal System in , and early versions of his system are in the public domain. Home Groups Talk More Zeitgeist.
Новый клиент с севера. Он не допустит, чтобы какие-то страхи лишили его потенциального клиента. - Друг мой, - промурлыкал он в трубку. - Мне показалось, что я уловил в вашей речи бургосский акцент. Сам я из Валенсии.
Понятно, домой он так и не ушел и теперь в панике пытается что-то внушить Хейлу. Она понимала, что это больше не имеет значения: Хейл и без того знал все, что можно было знать. Мне нужно доложить об этом Стратмору, - подумала она, - и как можно скорее. ГЛАВА 38 Хейл остановился в центре комнаты и пристально посмотрел на Сьюзан.
- Не думаю, что он знал, что имеет дело с вирусом. Я думаю, он был введен в заблуждение. Бринкерхофф молчал. Мидж Милкен явно чего-то не поняла.
Сьюзан застыла в полутора метрах от экрана, ошеломленная увиденным, и все называла имя человека, которого любила. ГЛАВА 115 В голове Дэвида Беккера была бесконечная пустота. Я умер.
Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов.