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- Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage 470121653 PDF Version
- List of World Heritage Sites in the Philippines
- Chocolate - History, Culture, Heritage
This absorbing narrative follows the craft community of French chocolatiers—members of a tiny group experiencing intensive international competition—as they struggle to ensure the survival of their businesses. Susan J. Terrio moves easily among ethnography, history, theory, and vignette, telling a story that challenges conventional views of craft work, associational forms, and training models in late capitalism.
At the heart of this study is a challenge to existing histories:. In the mythology of chocolate, the power relations of production and consumption are subsumed by a more attractive narrative of exotic peoples and their surroundings… chocolate seems to generate a particular type of history writing … one which delves into the realms of fantasy and romance pp. This interesting and wide-ranging study of one of the major commodities of empire analyses both the production of cocoa in West Africa and chocolate making, marketing and consumption in Britain. It weaves together the local and the global and provides further evidence for the indivisibility of British culture and society and its imperial hinterland.
Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage 470121653 PDF Version
Philip K. E-mail: wilsonpk etsu. To better place the following chapters within an historical context, this brief introduction aims to help readers fully appreciate the relatively long-standing quest to identify, validate and promote chocolate's potential in fulfilling nutritional needs, improving health and preventing disease.
This historical introduction provides a broader framework for the themes addressed in the following chapters. The brief synopsis that follows describes centuries of nutritional and medicinal associations with cacao and chocolate in a manner that corresponds with the three sections of this volume, namely science, nutrition and health.
Readers who wish to delve further into this historical quest are referred to Philip K. Wilson and W. Carl Linnaeus, the 18th-CenturyPhysician who classified this tree with the name Theoboroma cacao 1.
This volume, Chocolate and Health: Chemistry, Nutrition and Therapy , provides a snapshot in time identifying major areas whereby key bioactive ingredients of chocolate are being increasingly scrutinized to ascertain possibilities and potentials. Of course, snapshots never completely reveal the total scene, 2 though together they can provide something of a synthesis of the total landscape.
Over time, current investigations will provide the historical rendering of the nutritional and biomedical pursuits of the early 21st century. As in all science-based research, some leads from previous times meet roadblocks, thereby diverging efforts onto entirely different paths.
Just where chocolate will be featured in nutrition, health and therapy by the middle of the century is unknowable. Still, the pursuit to that eventual placement needs a starting point. This volume serves, among other uses, as that point.
Although this chapter's focus is intentionally historical, the references cited throughout this volume provide the respective chapter authors with springboards of earlier work from which to frame their own interpretations and research protocols. This historical introduction produces a broader framework for the themes addressed in following chapters. Though considerable history has been noted to be foundational for this volume, much of chocolate's luscious heritage has, alas, been neglected.
Jeffrey Hurst's Chocolate as Medicine: A Quest over the Centuries , as well as a number of other recent writings by authors or editors including Sophie D. Coe; Teresa L. Dillinger et al. MacLeod; Cameron L. Allen M. The chocolate tree's official name, Theobroma cacao food of the gods , acknowledges both scientific and sacred associations with this plant.
Chocolate itself is the main processed by-product of the cacao bean or nib or cotyledon. Cacao, the species of the Theobroma cacao plant, is typically used in reference to the tree, pod or bean, whereas cocoa refers to the powder made from the processed bean. Pods of the chocolate tree—historically referred to as oro negro black gold or pepe de oro seeds of gold —have long been highly valued and laboriously harvested with machetes or purposefully made cutlasses on long poles.
Processing the nibs within the pods has also required intensive skilled labor. The Maya would pound the nibs with stones called manos against a hard-surfaced metate , facilitating the process by adding a heat source underneath Figure 1. In these new surrounds, modifications in its use ensued over the centuries. An even greater contribution, so David G. In time, further industrialization efforts focused on improving the physical processes of roasting adding flavor and color , winnowing separating nibs from their outer husks , milling and conching kneading in the traditionally shell-shaped machines, together with aerating machines, to increase smoothness, viscosity and flavor , as well as chemically treating components along the production line e.
In areas surrounding the chocolate tree's natural habitat, select members of Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, Toltec and Aztec cultures claimed nutritional and medicinal benefits of their specially prepared ka-ka-wa Olmec - or cacao Maya -based drink preparations. Over the centuries, our refined understanding of the chocolate tree has shown that its delectable product requires delicate care throughout the agricultural enterprise. The equatorial rainforests provide optimal agronomic conditions, though enhancing its cultivation requires constant attention to planting, pollination, pruning and protection.
The significant amount of shade that the chocolate tree requires has been appreciated for centuries. Accompanying the first known engraved illustration Figure 1. Therefore, they plant it in forests where it is humid, and, afraid that this is not enough, they plant it next to a tree which is higher and which they bend over it, spreading its top so that it covers the cocoa tree, which thus gets shade all over it, so that the sun no longer does any harm.
Only later was this thick rainforest canopy found to widely support the growth of the Ceratopogonid biting and Cecidomyiid gall midges family Diptera that consume nectar from and simultaneously pollinate the tiny pink blossoms of the chocolate tree.
Each pollinated blossom subsequently produces small cherelles that, upon maturation, form the characteristic rugby ball-shaped pods. Given that not all cherelles from the same cluster of blossoms mature simultaneously, extra care is needed during harvesting. Adding to these agronomic needs are efforts to overcome the diseases to which the chocolate tree is most susceptible.
Among this tree's predominant predatory pests are the brown and black capsids Sahlbergella singularis and Distantiella theobroma , respectively , both of which damage inner tissue by feeding on the sap.
Pod-boring moths Conopomorpha cramerella are also known to damage bean development, and mealybugs Planococcoides njalensis serve as the vector for introducing the cacao swollen shoot virus family Caulimoviridae, genus Badnavirus , which primarily produce stem and root swelling types of destruction. Once chocolate tree diseases were more stringently addressed, chocolate supply rose to approximate the demand and, in , the rationing allocation that had been instituted by the Internal Emergency Food Committee during the war was finally revoked.
More recently, agroforestry efforts have aimed at establishing more sustainable cacao farming, often in regions beyond cacao's natural habitat.
In particular, alterations at the genetic level are being explored in the hopes of increasing plant resistance to disease and producing higher-yield varieties of cacao. It may very well be the increased demand for this precious product that consequently leads to major efforts in saving the natural diversity of rainforest regions. So, just where are these cacao-growing regions? The first cacao plantations were established in Brazil in , and this region continues to be recognized for its cacao crop.
A century later, African smallholdings and farms had become the predominant growing areas, especially within the rainforest lands of the then-named Gold Coast now Ghana and the Ivory Coast. As no other product truly mimics the multifaceted cacao, it has become a widely traded commodity since its introduction on the New York Cocoa Exchange in Only recently, however, have large chocolate companies began devoting significant attention towards acknowledging the rights, welfare and health of laborers whose livelihoods ultimately provide the world with such pleasures of the palate.
Chocolate remains, as tropical rainforest zoologist Allen M. Of cacaos beans Of white sugar, one pound and a halfeCinnamon 2 ouncesOf long red peppers 14Of cloves, halfe an ounce the best writers use them not Three Cods of the Logwood or Campeche tree.
These Cods are very good, and smell like Fennell. As much of Achiote as will give it colour which is about the quantity of a hasell-nut [sic]. In recent years, chocolate's value in terms of food and nutrition has been regularly highlighted. Such passages attest to the long-standing acknowledgement of chocolate's nutritive value. In order to meaningfully appreciate this significance, a working definition of nutrition is helpful. Questions remain, however, in determining more precisely what type s of food chocolate represents and what specifically are chocolate's key nutritive values.
In , Eileen M. As the following select areas of cacao and chocolate research demonstrate, the quest for specialized nutritive knowledge regarding chocolate was underway nearly a century ago. An early giant in nutrition science, E.
McCollum, offered an overview of the increasing emphasis during the early 20th century on approaching nutritional research strictly from a scientific basis in A History of Nutrition Similar depictions of chocolate's biochemical composition also began to appear at this time.
Some of this work transpired at the pioneering Dunn Nutritional Laboratory formed in Cambridge, England, in There and elsewhere, nutritional authorities investigated claims that chocolate's natural nutritive value was enhanced by adding milk, which was consumable as chocolate milk or cocoa drink or as a milk chocolate bar to eat. Williams reviewed contemporary scientific reports investigating the nutritive value of chocolate Figure 1. Twenty-five years later, Samuel Hinkle, then Chief Chemist of the Hershey Company, was still touting chocolate's nutritional benefits.
Such charting continued through the century. By , the US Department of Agriculture published tabular comparisons of chocolate including milk chocolate with and without almonds or peanuts, chocolate-coated peanuts and chocolate-coated raisins with other regular consumables including apples, bananas, cheese crackers, cookies, ice cream, oranges, peanuts, raisins, sunflowers and yogurt.
Chocolate came in second after sunflowers in terms of total food energy, close to ice cream and yogurt in terms of protein and midrange in terms of carbohydrates. Chocolate, a therapeutic medicine? Yes, and a preventative medicine as well! Since the s, investigators have increasingly scrutinized chocolate's potential therapeutic benefits for humans.
Preedy and Sherma Zibadi Promulgating chocolate for its therapeutic claims, however, has a centuries-long heritage, with many claims extending back to Aztec medical practices. As seen in Appendix 1, a number of early printed monographs appeared in the New World which described the seemingly magical health benefits derived from chocolate.
The first book devoted entirely to chocolate, Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma's Curioso Tratado de la Naturaleza y Calidad del Chocolate , was widely translated into European languages. Chocolate's usefulness as a medicine prompted its spread throughout Europe. Un Discurso del Chocolate promoted a wider array of New World views of chocolate's medicinal benefit for Old World audiences.
By , the Paris Faculty of Medicine had bestowed their imprimatur on its use. Cornelis Bontekoe, Dutch physician to the Elector Wilhelm of Brandenburg, in published Tractaat van het Excellenste Kruyd Thee in which praise for chocolate's medical qualities increased its consumption throughout Germany. His contemporary, the physician from St Dizier, Champagne, Pierre-Toussaint Navier, also advocated chocolate as medicine in Observationes sur le Cocao et sur le Chocolate Among the benefits Navier noted were chocolate's usefulness against scurvy, consumption, worms, digestive acids and general disorders of the lungs, heart and vessels.
In addition to noting the benefits of cacao itself, Navier further described chocolate's medicinal benefit of being used as a vehicle for other types of medicines such as purgatives, attenuants, expectorants, diuretics and incidentia. A century later, chocolate's potential health benefits were still being touted.
At times, chocolate prescriptions and recipes appeared in the same work, such as in Thomas Cooper's Treatise of Domestic Medicine, to which is added, A Practical System of Domestic Cookery. Beginning in the 19th century, European and US advertisements revealed an important conceptual change regarding chocolate and health. It was during this time that advertising helped solidify what was to become chocolate's enduring reputation as both a medicine and a food. Soon, chocolate became the medicine handed out by confectioners and the food prescribed by physicians.
By the early s, chocolate had become figuratively and literally linked with milk. London physician and Royal Society President Sir Hans Sloane specifically touted milk chocolate as the new restorative—an additive to his medical armamentarium gleaned from his voyage to Jamaica. John Cadbury and his sons George and Richard later purchased Sloane's milk chocolate.
Nineteenth-century improvements in cacao drink palatability owed much to Coenraad Johannes Van Houten who, in the s, refined cacao into a more digestible form by extracting the natural fat cocoa butter from the bean, leaving only the powder.
The powder could then be mixed with potash to darken its color, lighten its flavor and improve its solubility in water or milk. Contemporary French manufacturers promoted their own milk chocolate remedies as being specifically beneficial for individuals with fragile stomachs, as well as more generally for convalescents and children. During the second half of the 20th century, quests for experimental evidence were increasingly undertaken to support claims gathered regarding these potential benefits.
List of World Heritage Sites in the Philippines
Philip K. E-mail: wilsonpk etsu. To better place the following chapters within an historical context, this brief introduction aims to help readers fully appreciate the relatively long-standing quest to identify, validate and promote chocolate's potential in fulfilling nutritional needs, improving health and preventing disease. This historical introduction provides a broader framework for the themes addressed in the following chapters. The brief synopsis that follows describes centuries of nutritional and medicinal associations with cacao and chocolate in a manner that corresponds with the three sections of this volume, namely science, nutrition and health. Readers who wish to delve further into this historical quest are referred to Philip K. Wilson and W.
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Chocolate - History, Culture, Heritage
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Based on this realization, they decided to import Chinese and East Indians to work for them. Prior to this time there were about thirty Chinese living in Jamaica. The second batch, of about two hundred, coming from Trinidad and British Guiana arrived in Jamaica between